地球信息科学学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (11): 1348-1354.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2015.01348

• 全球卫星气候遥感数据 • 上一篇    下一篇

上海气候空间格局和时间变化研究

史军1(), 崔林丽2, 杨涵洧1, 孙兰东1   

  1. 1. 上海市气候中心,上海 200030
    2. 上海市卫星遥感与测量应用中心,上海 201199
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-04 修回日期:2015-06-05 出版日期:2015-11-10 发布日期:2015-11-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:史 军(1975-),男,博士,高工,主要从事气候变化和气象灾害方面的研究。E-mail: shij@climate.sh.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571044、41001283);中国清洁发展机制基金赠款项目(2012043);中国气象局气候变化专项项目(CCSF201503)

Spatial Pattern and Temporal Change of Climate in Shanghai

SHI Jun1,*(), CUI Linli2, YANG Hanwei1, SUN Landong1   

  1. 1.Shanghai Climate Center, Shanghai 200030, China
    2. Shanghai Center for Satellite Remote Sensing and Application, Shanghai 201199, China
  • Received:2015-05-04 Revised:2015-06-05 Online:2015-11-10 Published:2015-11-10
  • Contact: SHI Jun E-mail:shij@climate.sh.cn
  • About author:

    *The author: CHEN Nan, E-mail:fjcn99@163.com

摘要:

基于上海地区11个气象站气温、降水数据和主要天气现象记录资料,利用气候统计诊断方法研究了上海主要气候要素和天气现象的时空分布和变化特征。结果表明,上海年均气温呈中心城区高、周边郊区低的分布,中心城区与郊区年均温差最大可达0.9 ℃;降水量在中心城区和南部地区较多,而在北部和西部地区较少;高温日数中心城区明显多于东部和南部沿海,最多相差9.5 d;暴雨日数在中心城区和浦东较多,而在西部地区较少;雷暴、大风和大雾日数没有呈现出显著的城郊差异;霾日数在中心城区远高于郊区,最多相差49.2 d。1961-2013年间,上海年均气温显著上升,降水量略有增加,高温日数和霾日数分别以2.7 d/10 a和11.3 d/10 a的线性趋势增加,暴雨日数呈弱的增加趋势,而雷暴、大风和雾日数在1961-2013年间,分别以1.9、3.7和5.2 d/10 a的线性趋势减少。

关键词: 气候要素, 天气现象, 空间格局, 时间变化, 城市气候, 上海

Abstract:

Based on the temperature, precipitation data and main weather phenomenon records from 11 meteorological stations, the spatial and temporal distributions and the changes of main climate elements and the weather phenomena in Shanghai were analyzed using climate statistical diagnosis technology. The results indicate that the annual average temperature in Shanghai was higher in the urban areas and lower in the surrounding suburbs, with a maximum difference of 0.9 ℃; and the precipitation was heavier in the urban areas and southern suburbs, while less in the northern and western surrounding suburbs. The annual high temperature days were also greater in the urban areas than in the eastern and southern coastal areas, with a maximum difference of 9.5 days; and the annual torrential rain days were greater in the urban areas and Pudong region, but less in the western regions of Shanghai. The number of thunderstorm, gale and fog days did not show significant differences between the urban areas and suburbs. The annual haze days in the urban areas were evidently greater than those in the suburbs, with a maximum difference of 49.2 days. During the period from 1961 to 2013, the annual average temperature increased significantly while the annual precipitation increased slightly in Shanghai. The annual high temperature days and haze days increased with a linear rate of 2.7 and 11.3 days per decade respectively, while the annual thunderstorm, gale and fog days decreased with a linear rate of 1.9, 3.7 and 5.2 days per decade respectively in the past 53 years in Shanghai.

Key words: climate elements, weather phenomena, spatial pattern, temporal change, urban climate, Shanghai