地球信息科学学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (4): 496-504.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2018.170446

• 全国激光雷达大会特约稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

多源数据古塔变形监测研究

王国利1,2(), 吴桂凯1, 王晏民1,2, 郭明1,2,*(), 赵江洪1,2, 高超1   

  1. 1. 北京建筑大学,测绘与城市空间信息学院, 北京 102616
    2. 古建筑健康与精细三维重构北京市重点实验室,北京 102616
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-22 修回日期:2018-01-25 出版日期:2018-04-20 发布日期:2018-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 郭明 E-mail:Wangguoli@bucea.edu.cn;Guoming@bucea.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王国利(1983-),男,讲师,主要从事地面激光雷达数据处理与文化遗产保护数字化理论与方法研究。E-mail: Wangguoli@bucea.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41601409);北京市自然科学基金项目(8172016);北京市教育委员会科技发展计划项目面上项目(KM201510016016、KM201810016013);北京建筑大学科学研究基金特别委托项目(KYJJ2017024)

Deformation Monitoring of Ancient Pagoda with Multi-source Data

WANG Guoli1,2(), WU Guikai1, WANG Yanmin1,2, GUO Ming1,2,*(), ZHAO Jianghong1,2, GAO Chao1   

  1. 1. School of Geomatics and Urban Information, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 102616, China
    2. Beijing Key Laboratory for Architectural Heritage Fine Reconstruction & Health Monitoring, Beijing 102616, China;
  • Received:2017-09-22 Revised:2018-01-25 Online:2018-04-20 Published:2018-04-20
  • Contact: GUO Ming E-mail:Wangguoli@bucea.edu.cn;Guoming@bucea.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41601409;National Natural Science Foundation of Beijing, No.8172016;The Development Project of Beijing Municipal Science and Technology, No.KM201510016016, KM201810016013;Special Entrustment Project of Scientific Research Fund of Beijing University of Civil Engneering and Architecture, No.KYJJ2017024.

摘要:

建筑遗产的变形监测是遗产可持续保护的重要保障,塔类古建筑是古建筑中的典型,造型突兀高耸,变形包含沉降、倾斜、弯曲及扭转等多种状态,传统监测手段难以满足其监测需求。本文针对某古塔的变形问题,以传统测量方法为参照,采用地面激光雷达和无人机近景摄影测量技术获取古塔三维数据,结合古塔监测指标对3种方法流程、特点、数据及结果精度进行对比,通过融合三维模型对古塔病害分析,从不同的角度反映出古塔的变形状况。通过对比可知:常规测量方法进行古塔变形监测,具有精度高,应用灵活特点,适用于古建筑整体姿态或者典型特征监测;地面激光雷达技术精度高、设站灵活,能够精确分析古塔整体及部分局部的形变,但易受扫描视角的影响;无人机近景摄影测量技术建立的古塔三维模型具有高精度及真实的色彩,对整体及细节纹理表现好,但是无法获取塔内部狭窄空间的三维数据;融合数据能有效弥补单一数据源的缺陷,实现古塔全面病害分析。数据精度方面,地面激光扫描及近景摄影测量技术均可达到毫米级精度,传统监测方法在沉降与倾斜监测方面优于前2种方法,在监测全面性方面则前2种方法更具优势。

关键词: 古塔, 变形监测, 地面激光扫描, 无人机近景摄影测量, 全站仪

Abstract:

Deformation monitoring of architectural heritage plays an important role in Sustainable Heritage Protection. Ancient pagoda is one of the typical categories of architectural heritage with complex structure, high height and various models. The deformation of pagoda includes subsidence, tilting, bending and twisting etc, and it is difficult for conventional deformation monitoring methods to meet the monitoring requirement. Terrestrial LiDAR and UAV photogrammetry technology become more and more popular in 3D data acquisition of cultural heritage with fast speed, high accuracy and non-contact capabilities. However, most of the LiDAR and UAV data are used for detail surveying and documentation. In this paper terrestrial LiDAR and UAV photogrammetry technology were selected to obtain the 3D data of ancient pagoda for deformation studies. A comprehensive comparison and analysis is made for mornitoring process, characteristics and the accuracy of three methods and complete analysis on fusion model with UAV photogrammetry and LiDAR data is made according to the monitoring index of pagoda. The main conclusions are as follow: The conventional deformation methods is flexible and have more advantages in precision, and is more suitable for monitoring of the overall attitude of ancient buildings and their typical characteristics. Terrestrial LiDAR technology has advantages in overall and local deformation of pagoda, but it′s also susceptible to scanning angle. The 3D model of pagoda built by UAV close range photogrammetry technology has high precision and real color, and performs well on the whole and detail textures, however it′s hard for the technique to acquire the 3D data of narrow space inside ancient pagoda. Fusion data model can effectively make up the defects of the single data source and realize a comprehensive deformation analysis for ancient pagoda. For accuracy of the results, terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetric techniques can reach millimeter accuracy and is better in the comprehensive monitoring. The traditional monitoring method is superior in settlement and tilt monitoring to the first two methods.

Key words: ancient pagoda, deformation monitoring, terrestrial LiDAR, UAV close-range photogrammetry, total station