地球信息科学学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (9): 1274-1285.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2018.180212

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国东北三省大豆虚拟水时空分异及其影响因素研究

代粮1,2(), 刘玉洁1,2,*(), 潘韬1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-27 修回日期:2018-06-25 出版日期:2018-09-25 发布日期:2018-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘玉洁 E-mail:dailiangucas@163.com;liuyujie@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:代粮(1993-),男,硕士生,研究方向为气候变化与粮食安全。E-mail: dailiangucas@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC050350404);国家自然科学基金项目(41671037);中国科学院青年创新促进会会员项目(2016049);中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所可桢杰出青年学者计划(2017RC101)

Spatial-temporal Distribution of Soybean Virtual Water and Its Influencing Factors in Northeast China during 1986-2012

DAI Liang1,2(), LIU Yujie1,2,*(), PAN Tao1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-04-27 Revised:2018-06-25 Online:2018-09-25 Published:2018-09-25
  • Contact: LIU Yujie E-mail:dailiangucas@163.com;liuyujie@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    The National Key Research and Development Program of China, No.2016YFC050350404;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41671037;The Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS under Grant, No.2016049;Program for "Kezhen" Excellent Talents in IGSNRR of CAS, No.2017RC101

摘要:

水资源分布不均制约了地区农业生产。从虚拟水角度研究作物需水的时空变化特征及影响因素对提高水资源的合理配置与利用效率,缓解地区水资源短缺问题具有重要参考意义。本文基于Penman-Monteith模型和GIS地统计分析工具,从虚拟水视角分析1986-2012年东北大豆生长季内的需水量变化和虚拟水时空分异特征及其影响因素。结果表明:①1986-2012年,东北地区大豆生长季增温明显,平均风速下降显著,相对湿度整体下降,日照时数有增有减,气候暖干化趋势加剧。②东北大豆生长季内需水量西南多东北少,南部地区需水量减少而北部增加。平均风速的显著下降导致大豆需水量减少,其余气象因子变化均导致需水量增加,温度变化对需水量影响最大,相对贡献率为36.9%,其次为相对湿度、日照时数和平均风速。③大豆虚拟水的空间分布整体为西多东少,虚拟水变化以下降为主(80.6%站点)。虚拟水高值区集中于东北地区西部,向东虚拟水含量降低。气候变化导致了大豆需水量的增加,进而使虚拟水上升,大豆生产变化尤其是单产增长则使得虚拟水下降,气候变化对大豆虚拟水的影响抵消了部分大豆生产变化导致的虚拟水下降。因此,针对大豆虚拟水的时空分异特征,适当调整东北地区大豆的生产布局、选取如耐高温耐旱等大豆品种以及调整灌溉、施肥等田间管理措施等是气候变化背景下提高大豆水资源利用效率的有效适应措施。

关键词: 大豆, 虚拟水, 时空分异, 需水量, 东北三省

Abstract:

The uneven distribution of water resources restricts the regional agricultural production. Studying the temporal and spatial characteristics of crop water consumption based on the virtual water methods and theory can improve the rational allocation and utilization efficiency of water resources and alleviate the water resources shortage. This paper studies the temporal and spatial variability of virtual water and the evapotranspiration (ETc) of soybean in Northeast China from the virtual water perspective. The results showed that: (1) During 1986-2012, the temperature of soybean growth season obviously increased and the average wind speed decreased significantly. The relative humidity decreased and the sunshine duration increased or decreased in different districts. The climate warming and drying trend in Northeast China have deteriorated. (2) The water demand (ETc) of soybean in Northeast China was more in southwest than that in northeast, and the water demand in the south decreased while increased in the northern region. Obvious decline of the average wind speed resulted in a decrease in the soybean ETc, and the changes of other meteorological factors caused an increase in soybean ETc, with the temperature as the greatest impact on ETc, accounting for a relative contribution of 36.9%. The factors that follow were relative humidity, sunshine hours and average wind speed. (3) The spatial distribution of soybean virtual water (SVW) was higher in west and lower in east and soybean virtual water reduced in most of the sites (80.6% of the sites) from 1986 to 2012. The areas with higher SVW value were concentrated in the west of Northeast China including most of Liaoning, western Jilin and western Heilongjiang. The virtual water content gradually reduced towards the east. Climate change made soybean virtual water rise by affecting the soybean water demand, but the changes in soybean production, especially in terms of yield increase, had caused soybean virtual water decline. The impact of climate change on soybean virtual water partly counteracted the decline caused by soybean production changes. Therefore, appropriately planning the soybean productive layout in Northeast China, adopting soybean varieties such as high temperature and drought tolerance, and adjusting field management measures such as irrigation and fertilization, according to the spatio-temporal characteristics of soybean virtual water, are effective adaptation measures to improve the utilization efficiency of soybean water resources in the context of climate change.

Key words: soybean, virtual water, spatial-temporal distribution, evapotranspiration, Northeast China