地球信息科学学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (12): 1787-1798.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2018.180257

• 遥感科学与应用技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国大城市的城市组成对城市热岛强度的影响研究

王美雅1,2(), 徐涵秋1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1. 福州大学环境与资源学院/福州大学遥感信息工程研究所,福州 350116
    2. 福建省水土流失遥感监测评估与灾害防治重点实验室,福州 350116
    3. 福州大学空间数据挖掘与信息共享教育部重点实验室,福州 350116
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-30 出版日期:2018-12-25 发布日期:2018-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 徐涵秋 E-mail:286097145@qq.com;hxu@fzu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王美雅(1991-),女,博士生,主要从事环境资源遥感应用研究。E-mail: 286097145@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划专项课题(2016YFA0600302)

Analyzing the Influence of Urban Forms on Surface Urban Heat Islands Intensity in Chinese Mega Cities

WANG Meiya1,2(), XU Hanqiu1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1. College of Environment and Resources; Institute of Remote Sensing Information Engineering; Fuzhou University; Fuzhou 350116, China
    2. Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing of Soil Erosion and Disaster Prevention, Fuzhou University; Fuzhou 350116, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Spatial Data Mining & Information Sharing of Ministry of Education; Fuzhou University; Fuzhou 350116, China;
  • Received:2018-05-30 Online:2018-12-25 Published:2018-12-20
  • Contact: XU Hanqiu E-mail:286097145@qq.com;hxu@fzu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Project of China, No.2016YFA0600302.

摘要:

城市的快速扩张诱发并加剧了城市热岛效应,对人类健康和生存发展提出严峻挑战,因此,探索城市组成对城市热岛的影响具有重要意义。本研究在传统城市热岛影响因子的基础上,重点分析城市组成与城市热岛的关系。以13个中国大城市为研究区,利用2015年夏季(6-8月)白天和夜间的MODIS LST数据计算城市热岛强度,并结合土地覆盖数据、人口、区位和气象数据,分析热岛强度和城市地表组成、地表空间格局、人口和区位4类因子的关系。研究结果表明:中国的13个大城市均存在不同程度的热岛效应,城市白天的热岛效应比夜间显著。影响城市白天热岛强度的主要因子为城市建筑用地和林地面积比例、城市建筑用地和林地平均斑块面积、城市建筑用地聚集度和人口密度。城市建筑用地和林地平均斑块面积、城市建筑用地聚集度和林地斑块密度是夜间热岛强度的主要影响因子。城市建筑用地面积和乡村林地面积的增加会导致城市热岛情况的加剧,而通过调节城市地表空间格局(减少平均建筑用地斑块面积和降低建筑用地斑块聚集度)可以更好地降低城市地表温度,减缓城市热岛效应。

关键词: 大城市, 热岛强度, 城市组成, 地表温度, 土地覆盖

Abstract:

The rapid urban expansion has induced and aggravated the urban heat island phenomenon, which makes it a big challenge for human health and human survival environment. Research is needed to explore the impacts of urban form on the surface urban heat island. Taking 13 mega cities in China as the study area, this study mainly focuses on the relationship between urban forms and urban heat islands beside the traditional impact factors of surface urban heat islands. Using the MODIS land surface temperature products of the daytime and nighttime in summer 2015 (including June, July and August), along with the land cover, population, demographic and meteorological data of these 13 cities, the relationship between urban heat island and four factors, i.e. land covers composition, spatial configuration of land covers, population and location, were explored. Furthermore, the urban heat island intensity (UHII) index was employed to evaluate the urban heat island effect, which represents the mean LST difference between the urban region and the rural region. The results indicate that the urban heat island effect varies considerably among the 13 mega cities, showing a higher mean UHII in the daytime than that in the nighttime. The factors controlling annual mean daytime UHII are the area ratio of built-up area, the area ratio of forest, the mean patch area of built-up area, the mean patch area of forest, aggregation index of built-up area and population density. The nighttime UHII is significantly influenced by the mean patch area of built-up area, the mean patch area of forest, aggregation index of built-up area and the patch density of forest. Increasing the built-up area and the forest area will both increase UHII. Measures to mitigate the urban heat island include decreasing the built-up area or increasing green urban areas. Moreover, the urban heat island effect can be mitigated by altering the form of cities, such as, reducing the mean patch area of built-up area or reducing patch aggregation.

Key words: gega cities, UHII, urban forms, land surface temperature, land cover