地球信息科学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (1): 86-96.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2019.180264

• 地理大数据时空模式挖掘的方法与应用研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于手机信令数据的北京市空间品质时空动态分析

王楠1,2(), 杜云艳1,2,*(), 易嘉伟1,2, 刘张1,2, 王会蒙1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-31 修回日期:2018-09-18 出版日期:2019-01-20 发布日期:2019-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 杜云艳 E-mail:wangnan171@mails.ucas.ac.cn;duyy@lreis.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王 楠(1994-),女,硕士生,研究方向为时空数据挖掘。E-mail:wangnan171@mails.ucas.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重大项目(41590845);中国科学院前沿科学重点研究项目(QYZDY-SSW-DQC007-2).

Spatial-temporal Dynamic Analysis of Urban Space Quality based on Cellular Signaling Data of Beijing

Nan WANG1,2(), Yunyan DU1,2,*(), Jiawei YI1,2, Zhang LIU1,2, Huimeng WANG1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Lab of Resources and Environmental Information System, Insititute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-05-31 Revised:2018-09-18 Online:2019-01-20 Published:2019-01-20
  • Contact: Yunyan DU E-mail:wangnan171@mails.ucas.ac.cn;duyy@lreis.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41590845;Key Research Program of Frontier Science of The Chinese Academy of?Sciences, No.QYZDY-SSW-DQC007-2

摘要:

提升城市功能,增强城市承载力成为城市规划发展的新目标,城市空间品质研究已经成为目前城市规划研究的重点和难点,但是目前空间品质的研究存在动态连续性和空间精确性不足的问题。本文基于手机信令数据获取的城市内部全天的动态人口信息,以街区为尺度定量评价北京市五环内不同功能类型街区的空间品质指数一天内的动态变化,并进行时空分布特征、变化模式以及与人口活跃度关系的分析。结果表明,北京市五环内空间品质随人群活动的变化存在不均衡性,且在时间、空间、功能性质方面存在显著的分化。具体为:空间上城市内环与外环、城市南部与北部的品质差异显著;时间上大体呈现“陡降-低值稳定-陡升-高值稳定”的不稳定趋势;不同功能类型上有着特殊的变化模式,并且功能区之间的空间品质均值差距较大,夜晚街区的居住空间品质在城区内存在明显的等级差异性。这些结果为微观尺度下城市的资源分配和合理规划发展提供了参考和建议。

关键词: 空间品质, 手机信令数据, 时空分析, 北京市五环, 资源配置公平性

Abstract:

Improving urban functions and enhancing urban carrying capacity become new targets for urban planning and development. Quantifying urban space quality has become the research focus of urban planning in recent years. However, the lack of dynamic continuity and spatial accuracy in measuring the space quality weakens the practical value in urban planning. This study used the dynamic population information derived from cellular signaling data of one day and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method to establish a framework for evaluating dynamic spatial quality continuously at the functional block scale. The center region of Beijing within the fifth Ring were selected as a case study to test the evaluation framework. The time-varying spatial quality patterns and the correlation with dynamic population distribution were comprehensively investigated. The results show that the imbalance of the space quality in Beijing varies as the population distribution changes, and the significant differentiation in spatial-temporal and functional dimensions are manifested in the following aspects: We find that there exists spatial heterogeneity in the inner ring and outer ring of the city, which is more significant between the southern and northern parts of the city. On the time dimension, the spatial quality in the research area generally presents the unstable trend of "steep drop-low value stability-steep rise-high stability". On the dimension of function type, there are special changing modes on different functional types’ blocks and larger gap in the mean spatial quality values between functional areas. The quality of the living space in the night block has significant level differences in the city. These results show that the spatial quality is significantly differentiated in the time, space and functional nature of the city. Meanwhile, the analysis of the relationship between population activity and spatial quality can evaluate the rationality of current resource allocation in various types of blocks. These results can offer supportive references and recommendations for more scientific and rational urban planning at the microscopic scale.

Key words: urban space quality, cellular signaling data, time-spatial analysis, 5th Ring of Beijing, fairness of resource allocation