地球信息科学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (4): 504-511.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2019.180390

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国浮空器遥感遥测应用现状与展望

彭桂林1,2(), 万志强2   

  1. 1. 中国电子科技集团公司第三十八研究所,合肥 230031
    2. 北京航空航天大学航空科学与工程学院,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-24 修回日期:2019-03-05 出版日期:2019-04-24 发布日期:2019-04-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:彭桂林(1979-),男,江西宜春人,博士,研究员,主要从事浮空器综合信息系统研究。E-mail: bsipeng@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFB0503002)

The Present Situation and Prospect of Aerostat Applied to Remote Sensing and Remote Survey in China

Guilin PENG1,2,*(), Zhiqiang WAN2   

  1. 1. The 38th Research Institute, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, Hefei 230031, China
    2. School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2018-08-24 Revised:2019-03-05 Online:2019-04-24 Published:2019-04-25
  • Contact: Guilin PENG E-mail:bsipeng@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China, No.2017YFB0503500

摘要:

浮空器是一种新型的航空遥感遥测平台,适合于中小面积高分辨率的遥感遥测,尤其是中低空小型遥控飞艇,可依靠动力推进与操纵系统实现可操作飞行,具有飞行时间长、覆盖面积大、载重能力强、效费比高等特点,与其他几种航空平台相比,飞艇平台具有综合优势,在基础地理数据采集、国土资源勘查、环境监测、农业植被监测等各个领域具有广泛的应用前景。本文分析了中国有人飞机、无人机和中低空飞艇、平流层飞艇平台在遥感遥测中应用案例,以及各个航空平台的性能特点、工作方式、技术难点等,对比了各种平台的技术特点;探讨了中小型遥控飞艇平台在遥感遥测中应用的优势,研究了平流层飞艇的发展现状与关键技术;并结合国际相关领域的研究进展,对未来浮空器遥感应用的前景进行了展望。

关键词: 浮空器, 遥感遥测, 航空平台, 低空飞艇, 平流层飞艇, 中国

Abstract:

The aerostat is a new airborne remote sensing platform, which is suitable for high resolution remote sensing in a small and medium area. The floating aircraft, especially the medium and low altitude small remote control airship, can be supported by the power propulsion and control system to implement the maneuvering flight. It has the characteristics of long flight time, large coverage area, strong load capacity, and high cost-efficiency. Satellite remote sensing data that lacks high spatial resolution and timeliness is of limited ability to access remote environment at a micro scale. Rotary or fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms, which is capable of performing unmanned inspection, surveillance, reconnaissance, and mapping of inimical areas with amateur or SLR digital cameras, can fly with manual, semi-automated, and autonomous modes. It is well known that recently UAVs in the geomatics field became a common platform for data acquisition, but the platforms have a low payload capacity and its flight was too short to be a valid complementary solution to data acquisitions. Compared with several other aviation platforms, the airship platform has a comprehensive advantage, which meets the comprehensive urgent needs and precision large scale mapping requirement for the areas with complex terrains. It has a wide application prospect in various fields, such as basic geographic data collection, land resources exploration, environmental monitoring, and agricultural vegetation monitoring. As its height superiority,the airship can effectively overcome the influence of earth curvature and the environment which helps to enhance the detection performance. Near space aircraft is the fundamental infrastructure platform in breaking down the natural barriers between the aviation region and the outer space. The stratosphere airship, which is one of the quasi-static aircrafts within the near space, has unique platform advantages. It is equipped with laser scanner, VIS camera (one for vertical capturing or more for slope capturing), thermo camera, and INS/GPS as an exterior orientation (pose) determination in undertaking tasks of aviation thermometric mapping and environmental studies. This objectives of this paper are (1) to analyze the application cases of the remote sensing telemetry of China's human aircraft, UAV, middle and low altitude airship and stratospheric airship platform; (2) to analyze the performance characteristics, working methods, and technical difficulties of each aviation platform; (3) to compare the technical features of various platforms; (4) to discusse the advantages of the application of the small and medium remote control airship platform in remote sensing telemetry, and (5) to explore the development status and key technology of the stratospheric airship. In the end, the future application of the remote aerostat is prospected in the light of the research progress in the international related fields.

Key words: aerostat, remote sensing and remote survey, aerial platform low altitude airship, stratospheric airship, China