地球信息科学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (4): 524-531.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2019.180453

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于无人飞行平台的小型Ka波段合成孔径 雷达系统研制

张琦(), 张雷, 郭俊栋, 胡建民   

  1. 中国科学院电子学研究所, 北京 100190
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-10 修回日期:2019-03-18 出版日期:2019-04-24 发布日期:2019-04-24
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张 琦(1977-),男,四川绵阳人,博士,研究方向为信号与信息处理。E-mail: zhangq-7@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(61471340);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFB0503001)

Development of Ka-band Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar based on UAV

Qi ZHANG*(), Lei ZHANG, Jundong GUO, Jianmin HU   

  1. Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
  • Received:2018-09-10 Revised:2019-03-18 Online:2019-04-24 Published:2019-04-24
  • Contact: Qi ZHANG E-mail:zhangq-7@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.61471340;National Key Research and Development Program of China, No.2017YFB0503001

摘要:

无人飞行平台具有滞空时间长、使用维护方便等优点,在军事侦查打击、国土资源普查、灾害监测等领域的应用日益广泛。合成孔径雷达是一种二维成像雷达,能够得到类似光学图片的雷达图像,具有全天候、高分辨率、宽检测范围等优点,是无人飞行平台的重要载荷之一。然而,受限于无人飞行平台相对较小的空间与负载能力,雷达载荷必须向小型、轻量以及低功耗等方面发展。Ka波段电磁波信号具有波长短、带宽大、关键微波器件的体积小等特点,适合应用于高分辨率微小型雷达载荷。2015年中国科学院电子学研究所面向中小型无人飞行平台,开展了研制的小型高分辨率Ka波段合成孔径雷达工作,并通过试飞验证了雷达性能。本文研究了Ka波段SAR雷达系统各项关键技术,介绍了雷达系统及关键模块设计方案、雷达各工作模式的参数设计和实时成像算法,展示了该雷达在轻型飞行平台上获得的高分辨率飞行图像,并对图像进行了指标分析。试验结果表明:该Ka波段雷达系统成像清晰,图像分辨率优于0.2 m,满足设计指标要求;实测雷达重量低于10 Kg,峰值功耗小于100 W,适用于轻小型无人飞行平台。

关键词: 无人飞行平台, 合成孔径雷达, Ka波段, 毫米波, 雷达成像, 线性调频变标算法

Abstract:

Unmanned Aerial Vechicle (UAV) is widely used in military investigation and attack, land and resources survey, disaster monitoring and other fields because of its advantages such as long stay time and easy maintenance. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a kind of two-dimensional imaging radar, which can obtain radar images similar to optical images. It has the advantages of all-weather, high resolution, wide detection range and so on. It is one of the important loads of UAV. However, due to the relatively small space and load capacity of UAV, radar load must be small volume, light weight and low power consumption. Ka-band electromagnetic wave signal has the characteristics of short wavelength, wide bandwidth and small size of key microwave devices. It is suitable for high resolution miniature radar load. In 2015, the Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, developed a kind of high resolution Ka-band synthetic aperture radar for small or medium UAV. The performance of the SAR was verified by flight test. In this paper, the key technologies of Ka-band SAR radar system are studied. The design scheme of radar system and key modules, the parameter of each working mode and real-time imaging algorithm are introduced. The radar weight is less than 10 Kg, and the peak power consumption is less than 100 W. It is suitable for small or light UAV. The high-resolution flight images obtained by the radar on light flight platform are displayed, and the performance of the images are analyzed. The experimental results show that the Ka-band SAR system can generate clear radar image and meets the design requirements. For example, the image resolution is better than 0.2 m and the detection distance is greater than 10 km..The rapid progress of microwave device technology represented by solid-state high power amplifier is the foundation of the success of this project. The project is a new attempt to develop Ka-band SAR and apply it to UAV. It also makes a useful exploration for the further development of Ka-band synthetic aperture radar and has important application value. The development of small Ka-band synthetic aperture radar in the future depends on the maturity of semiconductor technology and the improvement of the performance of Ka-band microwave devices. On the other hand, it also depends on the research of new style SAR which has high duty cycle and pulse agility, which can improve the average power of radar and solve the problem of ambiguity of detection range.

Key words: UAV, SAR, Ka-band, millimeter wave, radar Image, chirp-scaling algorithm