地球信息科学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 372-383.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2019.180518

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

全球土地覆被数据集中哈萨克斯坦草地分布的异同及其成因

赖晨曦1,2(), 闫慧敏2,3,*(), 杜文鹏2,3, 胡云锋2,3   

  1. 1. 长安大学地球科学与资源学院,西安 710054
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-13 修回日期:2018-12-13 出版日期:2019-03-15 发布日期:2019-03-15
  • 通讯作者: 闫慧敏 E-mail:laicxjxycja@126.com;yanhm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:赖晨曦(1994-),男,江西宜春人,硕士,主要从事生态环境遥感研究。E-mail: laicxjxycja@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)资助(XDA20010202);国家重点研发项目(2016YFC 05037000)

The Variations and Causes of Grassland Distribution in Kazakhstan from the Global Land Cover Datasets

Chenxi LAI1,2(), Huimin YAN2,3,*(), Wenpeng DU2,3, Yunfeng HU2,3   

  1. 1. School of Earth Science and Resources, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710054, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-10-13 Revised:2018-12-13 Online:2019-03-15 Published:2019-03-15
  • Contact: Huimin YAN E-mail:laicxjxycja@126.com;yanhm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    The Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.XDA20010202;National Key Research and Development Program of China, No.2016YFC0503700.

摘要:

受社会制度变迁和气候变化的影响,哈萨克斯坦是中亚地区生态退化和草畜矛盾问题最为突出的国家。近百年来,放牧方式的改变、农业开垦的占用、加之暖干化的气候变化影响,使得哈萨克斯坦各类草地生态系统变化的时空格局具有鲜明的特点。因此,研究哈萨克斯坦草地退化的过程与机制对认识中亚地区草地生态系统对气候变化和人类活动的响应尤为重要,也是对绿色丝路建设过程中区域生态可持续发展的科学支撑。土地覆被数据是生态变化研究的基础数据,但目前广泛使用的各套全球数据集间往往存在很大的差异,这会导致对生态变化成因的认知以及对未来变化的模型模拟产生更大的不确定性。本研究从对草地类型识别的定义、空间分布的一致性和空间分布差异的原因3方面对比5类全球土地覆被数据(UMD 1992-1993、MCD12Q1 2001、GLC 2000、CCI-LC 2000、Glob Cover 2005)中哈萨克斯坦草地分布的异同,以期为哈萨克斯坦的相关研究中土地覆被数据集的选择提供依据。研究结果表明:① 分类系统中对草地类型的界定、遥感数据源、辅助分类数据、分类方法、验证数据和方法的不同是5套数据草地资源分布差异的主要原因,其中MCD12Q1数据与其他4套数据的草地分布面积相差最大;② 5套数据中草地分布都重叠(完全一致)或四套数据重叠(高度一致)的区域仅占39.66%,主要位于哈萨克斯坦典型草原带和部分半荒漠草原带;围绕典型草地分布区,空间一致性由内向外逐渐降低。5套数据完全不一致区域占26.78%,主要位于荒漠草原带;③ CCI-LC2000数据与其他几类数据的重叠区域最高,有76%的草地与5套数据的完全一致以及高度一致区重叠;在分布不一致区域中,极易造成混淆的土地覆被类型主要为旱作耕地、灌溉耕地、耕地与自然植被镶嵌体、裸地以及灌丛。

关键词: 全球土地覆被数据, 草地资源, 空间一致性, 类型混淆, 哈萨克斯坦

Abstract:

Affected by social institutional transformation and climate change, Kazakhstan is the most significant country with ecological degradation and grass-livestock contradiction in Central Asia. Over the past century, the distinct characteristics of various grassland ecosystems have changed due to agricultural reclamation, changes in grazing patterns, and climate change in Kazakhstan. Therefore, it is important to study the process and mechanisms of grassland degradation in Kazakhstan in order to understand the responses of grassland ecosystems to climate change and human activities in Central Asia. These findings may also support regional ecological sustainable development in the construction of green silk roads. Ecological change research is based on the land cover statistics. However, there are significant differences between the current widely-used global data sets, leading to uncertainty in the understanding of ecological variation and the simulation of future change. This study compared the similarities and differences of grassland distribution using five types of global land cover data (UMD 1992-1993, MCD12Q1 2001, GLC 2000, CCI-LC 2000, Glob Cover 2005). Grassland type identification, consistency of spatial distribution and the cause of spatial distribution variation were used to provide the basis for selection of land cover datasets in Kazakhstan. Results showed that: ① the primary cause of differences in grassland definitions were differing remote sensing data sources, ancillary data, classification methods, verification methods, and data within the five data sets. The MCD12Q1 data had the largest difference in grassland distribution area; ② the area of grassland distribution overlaps within the five data sets (complete consistency) or within the four data sets (high consistency) accounted for only 39.66% of the total, which were mainly located in the typical grassland and part of the semi-desert grassland. The spatial consistency gradually decreased from the inside to the outside around the typical grassland distribution zone. An inconsistent zone within the five data sets accounted for 26.78%, mainly located in the desert grassland; ③ CCI-LC2000 data had the highest areas of overlap compared to other types of data. There were 76% of the grassland overlapped with areas of complete consistency or high consistency in the five data sets. In the inconsistent areas, the most easily confused land cover types were mainly rainfed cropland, irrigated cropland, mosaic cropland and natural vegetation, bare areas and shrub land.

Key words: global land cover data, grassland resources, spatial consistency, type confusion, Kazakhstan