地球信息科学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (8): 1170-1182.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2019.180572

• 地球信息科学理论与方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

面向室内应急疏散标识的VR眼动感知实验与布局评估

马晓辉1,2,周洁萍1,*(),龚建华1,2,3,黄琳1,2,李文航1,邹宇玲3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院遥感与数字地球研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 浙江中科空间信息技术应用研发中心,嘉兴 314199
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-08 修回日期:2019-04-23 出版日期:2019-08-25 发布日期:2019-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 周洁萍 E-mail:zhoujp@radi.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:马晓辉(1994-),女,河北石家庄人,硕士生,主要从事虚拟地理环境研究。E-mail: annmxh@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA19080101);中国科学院遥感与数字地球所所长青年基金项目(Y5SJ1900CX);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFB0503602);装备发展部预研项目(315050501);国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(41701469)

VR Eye-Tracking Perception Experiment and Layout Evaluation for Indoor Emergency Evacuation Signs

MA Xiaohui1,2,ZHOU Jieping1,*(),GONG Jianhua1,2,3,HUANG Lin1,2,LI Wenhang1,ZOU Yuling3   

  1. 1. Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049, China
    3. Zhejiang-CAS Application Center for Geoinformatics, Jiaxing 314199, China
  • Received:2018-11-08 Revised:2019-04-23 Online:2019-08-25 Published:2019-08-25
  • Contact: ZHOU Jieping E-mail:zhoujp@radi.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Strategic science and technology project of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA19080101);The Young Scientists Foundation of RADI(Y5SJ1900CX);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFB0503602);Equipment development department pre-research project(315050501);National Natural Science Youth Foundation of China(41701469)

摘要:

在室内应急疏散的背景下,理解人们如何感知应急疏散标识以及他们的感知如何影响疏散行为十分重要。虚拟地理环境基于虚拟现实(VR)技术构建的沉浸式多维信息空间,是一个符合人类感知认知规律的三维、动态、可交互空间。而基于虚拟地理环境的虚拟地理感知/认知实验,则可以提供一个可定量观测的可控虚拟实验环境,通过设计多种实验方案,定量地获取与空间感知、认知行为相关的客观实验数据。本文将沉浸式虚拟环境与眼动追踪技术相结合,设计了VR眼动感知实验,以室内通道为例,采用定量观测、数据统计、可视化分析等方法,对不同虚拟火灾逃生场景下的疏散时间、眼动注视点、个体移动轨迹数据进行了处理与分析,最后对室内应急疏散标识布局进行评估并提出合理建议。实验结果表明:① 女性参与者比男性更容易被逃生起始位置干扰,拥有较差的虚拟空间感;② 3种场景类型(无标识无烟雾、有标识无烟雾、有标识有烟雾)在疏散时间之间存在明显差异,应急标识、烟雾与逃生起始位置对疏散时间有显著性影响;③ 通道墙贴标识的感知率最高为0.929,在火灾逃生中最容易被识别;④ 安全出口标识感知率最低为0.333,眼动注视点大多在安全门而非安全出口标识上,因此需要提升安全出口标识的视觉吸引力;⑤ 室内通道微观环境的不同(例如通道长度)对应急标识注视时长的变化有较大影响;⑥ 安全出口附近的标识布局、设计有待改进。虚拟眼动感知实验为评估室内应急疏散标识的合理性和布局优化提供了一个有效的科学途径。

关键词: 应急疏散标识, 眼动感知实验, 虚拟现实, 虚拟火灾逃生, 布局评估, 虚拟地理环境, 眼动追踪

Abstract:

In the context of indoor emergency evacuation, it is important to understand how people perceive emergency evacuation signs and how their perceptions affect evacuation behaviour. As a new generation of geospatial cognitive analysis tool, virtual geographic environments (VGE) provides an immersive multi-dimensional information space based on virtual reality (VR) technology. It is a three-dimensional, dynamic, and interactive space that conforms to the laws of human perception and cognition. Moreover, based on virtual geographical environments, virtual geographical perception/cognition experiment has developed rapidly, which plays an important role in many research fields including physical geography, environment and health, crowd evacuation, and human-computer interaction, providing a controlled virtual experimental environment that can be observed quantitatively. By designing a variety of experimental schemes, objective experimental data related to spatial perception and cognitive behaviour can be obtained. By combining immersive virtual environment with eye-tracking technology, a VR eye-tracking perception experiment was designed in this study. Taking the indoor corridor as an example, the data of evacuation time, eye movement fixation point, and individual movement trajectory under three types of different virtual fire escape scenarios were obtained, processed, and analyzed by quantitative observation, data statistics, and visual analysis. Finally, the layout of indoor emergency evacuation signs was evaluated and suggestions were proposed. We found that female participants were more likely to be disturbed by the starting position of escape than male participants, and had a poorer sense of virtual space. The evacuation time differed notably among the three types of scenario (no-sign, sign, and smoke). Emergency evacuation signs, smoke, and the initial position of escape had significant influence on evacuation time. The channel wall sign had the highest perception rate (0.929) and was most easily recognized by pedestrians in fire escape. The safety exit sign had the lowest perception rate (0.333), and most of the eye fixation points were on the safety gate instead of the safety exit sign. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the visual attraction of safety exit signs to attract the attention of people in advance through appropriate size enlargement, brightness enhancement, color flashing, and other striking effects. Different indoor passage micro-environment like the length of passage has great influence on the change of sign's fixation time. And the layout and design of signs near safety exits need to be improved. Virtual eye-tracking perception experiment provides an easy solution for evaluating the design of indoor emergency evacuation signs.

Key words: emergency evacuation signs, eye-tracking perception experiment, virtual reality, virtual fire escape, layout evaluation, virtual geographic environments, eye tracking