地球信息科学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (10): 1518-1526.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2019.180622

• 地球信息科学理论与方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于改进引力模型的广场公园可达性研究

董小刚1,2,3,乔庆华4,5,*(),翟亮4,5,孙立1,2,3,甄云鹏6   

  1. 1. 兰州交通大学测绘与地理信息学院,兰州 730070
    2. 地理国情监测技术应用国家地方联合工程研究中心,兰州 730070
    3. 甘肃省地理国情监测工程实验室,兰州 730070
    4. 中国测绘科学研究院,北京100830
    5. 地球观测与时空信息科学国家测绘地理信息局重点实验室,北京 100830
    6. 武汉市测绘研究院,武汉 430022
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-03 修回日期:2019-05-15 出版日期:2019-10-25 发布日期:2019-10-29
  • 通讯作者: 乔庆华 E-mail:qiaoqh@casm.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:董小刚(1993-),男,甘肃定西人,硕士生,主要研究方向为空间数据分析及地理国情监测。E-mail: 1356714115@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFB0503502);基本科研业务费项目(7771728);基本科研业务费项目(7771820);国家自然科学基金项目(41701213);兰州交通大学优秀平台支持项目(201806)

Evaluating the Accessibility of Plaza Park Using the Gravity Model

DONG Xiaogang1,2,3,QIAO Qinghua4,5,*(),ZHAI Liang4,5,SUN Li1,2,3,ZHEN Yunpeng6   

  1. 1. Faculty of Geomatics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    2. National-Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Technologies and Applications for National Geographic State Monitoring, Lanzhou 730070, China
    3. Gansu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for National Geographic State Monitoring, Lanzhou 730070, China
    4. Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping, Beijing 100830, China
    5. Key Laboratory of Earth Observation and Geospatial Information Science of NASG, Beijing 100830, China
    6. Wuhan geomatics institute, Wuhan 430042, China
  • Received:2018-12-03 Revised:2019-05-15 Online:2019-10-25 Published:2019-10-29
  • Contact: QIAO Qinghua E-mail:qiaoqh@casm.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFB0503502);Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(7771728);Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(7771820);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41701213);Funded by Lanzhou Jiaotong University Excellent Platform(201806)

摘要:

城市化的迅速发展使越来越多的自然环境被城市建筑所代替,随着居民生活水平的逐渐提升,居民开始越来越关注广场公园的休闲游憩功能,广场公园的可达性逐渐成为现代人选择居住小区的重要指标之一,如何客观真实地评价广场公园的可达性是学者们长期关注的问题之一。本文分析了距离摩擦系数β从0.6~2.2以步长为0.2变化时对可达性结果的影响,同时为了准确测定广场公园的可达性,将旅游域模型的思想首次应用至可达性研究中,对引力模型中的距离衰减系数β进行估计,最后以武汉市中心城区为例进行验证。结果表明:① 距离摩擦系数β较小的变化将对可达性结果产生较大的影响,随着β的增加可达性计算值出现最大值越来越大、最小值越来越小、标准差越来越大的现象;② 基于旅游域模型的思想构建参数估计方法并选取5组不同实验对引力模型中的距离摩擦系数β进行估算,最终通过求取不同实验组的均值得β=1.70时的可达性评价结果更加可靠;③ 通过武汉市中心城区广场公园可达性的实例验证,结果表明优化后的模型在考虑广场公园规模与人口规模影响因子的同时,可以充分体现广场公园吸引力在距离衰减上的变化,更加客观真实地评价广场公园的可达性。

关键词: 可达性, 引力模型, 旅游域模型, 距离摩擦系数, 武汉市

Abstract:

More and more natural environment has been replaced by buildings during the rapid urbanization. However, with the increasing living standards, residents have been paying growing attention to the leisure recreation function of plaza park. Therefore, the accessibility of plaza park has gradually become one of the important indicators for modern people to make their housing choices. But how to objectively and realistically evaluate the accessibility of plaza park is one of the long-term concerns for scholars. Based on previous studies, this article used the gravity model to analyze the influence of the distance friction coefficient on the accessibility evaluation. Importantly, the sensitivity of the evaluation was assessed with the step size of β changing with 0.2 from 0.6 to 2.2. Meanwhile, to further determine accurately the distance friction coefficient β, the idea of tourism domain model was applied for the first time in the accessibility study, for estimating the distance friction coefficient β in the gravity model. Lastly, the accessibility of plaza park was evaluated by a case study in downtown Wuhan. Results show that the distance friction coefficient β is an important parameter in the gravity model. A small change in the friction coefficient β has a great impact on the result of accessibility evaluation. As β increased, the maximum value of the evaluated accessibility became larger and larger, the minimum value became smaller and smaller, and the standard deviation also became larger and larger. It is very important to select the appropriate distance friction coefficient in the gravity model; different β values determine whether the evaluation results are good or not. Therefore, the method of estimating the distance friction coefficient β was constructed based on the idea of tourism domain model method, this paper conducted five experiments to estimate the distance friction coefficient β in the gravity model. Finally, the distance friction coefficient β was obtained by calculating the mean value of different experimental groups. The result of accessibility evaluation is more reliable when β=1.70. The proposed methodology was demonstrated through a case study of the central city plaza park in Wuhan. The results show that the optimized model can fully reflect the change of the attraction of plaza park in distance attenuation. The model fully considers the scale of plaza park and the influence of population scales, which can make a true and objective evaluation of the accessibility of plaza park.

Key words: accessibility, gravity model, tourist domain model, distance friction coefficient, Wuhan