地球信息科学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (10): 1491-1501.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2019.190083

• 地球信息科学理论与方法 •    下一篇

基于自然语言形态描述的地理实体模拟表达方法

洪必文1,2,3, 曹青1,2,3, 张翎1,2,3,4,*(), 龙毅1,2,3, 寇萱1,2,3   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
    2. 虚拟地理环境教育部重点实验室,南京 210023
    3. 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
    4. 南京师范大学常州创新发展研究院,常州 213000
    5. 天翼物联科技有限公司,南京210001
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-27 修回日期:2019-07-05 出版日期:2019-10-25 发布日期:2019-10-29
  • 通讯作者: 张翎 E-mail:lingzhang.sky@gmail.com
  • 作者简介:洪必文(1996-),女,硕士生,湖北武汉人,主要从事空间认知与地图可视化。E-mail:840456645@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571382);国家自然科学基金项目(61472191);江苏省高校自然科学研究重大项目(15KJA420001)

Simulated Expression of Geographical Entities based on Morphology Description by Natural Language

HONG Biwen1,2,3, CAO Qing1,2,3, ZHANG Ling1,2,3,4,*(), LONG Yi1,2,3, Kou Xuan1,2,3   

  1. 1. School of Geography Science Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment of Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
    4. Changzhou Institute of Innovation and Develop-ment, Nanjing Normal University, Changzhou 213000, China
    5. Tianyi IOT Technology Co., Ltd.,Nanjing 210001,China
  • Received:2019-02-27 Revised:2019-07-05 Online:2019-10-25 Published:2019-10-29
  • Contact: ZHANG Ling E-mail:lingzhang.sky@gmail.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41571382);National Natural Science Foundation of China(61472191);College Natural Science Research Key Program of Jiang Su Province(15KJA420001)

摘要:

日常生活中人们使用定性的自然语言描述地理实体,如何将定性描述的地理实体转换为定量的图形符号是空间认知、地图表达等领域面临的挑战。本文提出一种基于自然语言形态描述的地理实体表达方法,通过对自然语言中地理实体的语义信息进行分析,对自然语言描述的地理实体的形状、大小、分布状况等空间形态信息以地图形式进行近似表达。本文首先阐述了自然语言形态描述的定义与内涵,结合地图符号相关理论,研究了形态描述驱动的地理实体模拟表达策略,并对不同语义模糊度的地理实体图形表达进行了分析和实例设计,最后提出了一种计算空间实体相似性的方法对表达效果进行评估。结果表明,基于本文方法的地理实体模拟表达与手绘图中地理实体的平均相似度达到89.5%,与导览图的地理实体平均相似度达到86.86%,能够实现较好的表达效果,具有一定的科学性和可行性,为自然语言到地图语言的转换研究奠定了基础。

关键词: 自然语言, 形态描述, 空间认知, 模糊语义, 地理实体, 符号设计, 模拟表达

Abstract:

Natural language and maps both have the ability to express geospatial information. Compared with maps, natural language is more abstractive and acceptable to people. But a map has irreplaceable advantages to show the spatial morphological characteristics of geographic entities intuitively. The description of geographic entities in natural language is usually not completely quantitative. Except for limited quantitative descriptions of distances and sizes, there are likely also qualitative descriptions of colors, shapes, and etc. Transforming spatial information described by natural language to maps can release the burden of working memory and promote discovery, inference, and insight. Yet, it remains a challenge in the fields of spatial cognition and map symbols regarding how to convert qualitatively described geographic entities in natural language, which are usually fuzzy or semantics missing, into quantitative graphical symbols. In recent studies on "natural language to map", simple geometrical shapes and common icons were used to express geographic entities. However, much information of geographic entities, which represents the spatial cognition results of human to a certain extent, are lost. This paper proposed a method of geographic entity expression based on morphological description by natural language. By analyzing the semantic information of geographic entities described in natural language, the spatial shape information (e.g., shape, size, and distribution of geographical entities) and other properties necessary for entity expression (e.g., color) were approximately expressed in the form of map. First, the definition and connotation of natural language morphological description were introduced, and the classifications of morphological description and semantic fuzziness were given. Second, combined with the map symbol theory, the morphological description-driven geographic entity simulation expression strategies were studied. Five strategies were proposed for shape, size, color, orientation, and combination. Third, the geographic entity simulated expression with different semantic ambiguity was analyzed and designed, including geographic entity symbol design for single morphological type and different morphological types. Finally, an experiment was implemented for evaluating the validity and quality of the simulated expression of geographic entities. The experiment took Yihe Park, Beijing, China as an example and its tour commentary was applied to convert to a map. In addition, an evaluation method of spatial entity similarity was applied to assess the converted map. Our findings suggest that the graphic design method of this paper can achieve better expression results and has the potential of facilitating better conversion from natural language to maps.

Key words: natural language, morphological description, spatial cognition, semantic fuzziness geographical entity, symbol design, simulated expression