地球信息科学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (12): 1934-1944.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2019.190308

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆五彩湾矿区开发对荒漠植被的扰动分析

徐轩1,2, 李均力2,*(), 包安明2, 王宝山1, 李长春1   

  1. 1. 河南理工大学测绘与国土信息工程学院,焦作 454000
    2. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-17 修回日期:2019-08-20 出版日期:2019-12-25 发布日期:2019-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 李均力 E-mail:lijl@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:徐 轩(1992-),男,河南许昌人,硕士生,研究方向为遥感信息提取、矿区生态环境监测。E-mail: xuxuan1992@outlook.com
  • 基金资助:
    天山雪松计划项目(2018XS11);国家自然科学基金项目(41671034)

Disturbance Analysis of Desert Vegetation under the Development of Wucaiwan Mining Area in Xinjiang

XU Xuan1,2, LI Junli2,*(), BAO Anming2, WANG Baoshan1, LI Changchun1   

  1. 1. School of Surveying and Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, China
    2. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
  • Received:2019-06-17 Revised:2019-08-20 Online:2019-12-25 Published:2019-12-25
  • Contact: LI Junli E-mail:lijl@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Tianshan Cedar Plan(2018XS11);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41671034)

摘要:

荒漠露天矿区植被受损评估及环境修复是近年研究的热点方向。为了研究新疆五彩湾地区矿产开发对矿区及周边荒漠植被的扰动影响,采用1990-2017年90景Landsat数据分析煤矿开发前后矿区及周边荒漠植被的时空变化特征,并定量分析矿区植被长势对气候变化、矿区扩张的响应。结果表明:① 2006-2013年矿区植被所受的扰动最大,在周边植被长势转好的情形下出现明显的退化,在1990-2006年和2014-2017年,扰动较小,矿区与周边植被长势变化一致;② 生长季的月度NDVI分析显示,矿区中心样区的植被经历了一个先退化后恢复的过程;③ 矿区开发对周边植被长势的扰动距离分别为“西-东”方向的-17~21 km和“南-北”方向的-13~23 km,其中2013年对植被的干扰距离最大;④ 冬春季降水是五彩湾矿区及周边植被长势转好的主要因素,虽然矿区一直处于扩张的状态,然而随着降水的增加和矿尘防护措施的加强,2014年来矿区植被长势转好,与周边植被变化趋于一致。本文的研究为干旱区露天煤矿及周边荒漠植被变化动态监测及矿区开采的扰动范围提供了准确的数据支持,便于矿区管理者合理制定相关环保法规及矿区管理办法,实施相关环境保护和污染控制等措施。

关键词: 露天煤矿, 荒漠植被, 时空变化, 扰动距离, 气候变化, 降水, 新疆五彩湾

Abstract:

The assessment of desert vegetation damage in large-scale strip coal mining areas is a research hotspot in environment restoration studies in the recent years. The Wucaiwan mining area is located in the western part of the Xinjiang Zhundong coal mining base, most of which is open-pit coal mining. Since the construction of the mining area in 2006, coal mining and coal chemical industry have had a serious impact on the surrounding eco-environment. With 90 scenes of Landsat imagery, the present paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of Wucaiwan and its surrounding desert vegetation before and after the open-pit coal mining. The aim was to study the disturbance effects of open-pit mineral exploitation from 1990 to 2017, and to quantify the response of vegetation growth to climate change and mining area expansion. Results show that: (1) The vegetation change during 2006-2013 in the mining area presented a trend opposite to that of surrounding areas, with similar trends during 1990-2006 and 2014-2017. Vegetation in the mining area was severely disturbed and experienced an obvious degradation during 2006-2013. (2) Vegetation of the mining area was most flourishing in May or June and fell into decay in July or August, as evidenced by the monthly NDVI during the growing season. This illustrates the typical phenological characteristics of desert ephemeral plants, and it can be seen clearly that vegetation in the central sample area of the mining area has undergone successively degradation and restoration. (3) The disturbance distances of the development of surrounding areas on the growth of surrounding vegetation were -17~21 and -13~23 km along the “west-east” and “south-north” directions, respectively. Besides, the disturbance distance in 2013 was the largest. (4) The precipitation in winter and spring was the main influencing factor on the growth of the Wucaiwan mining area and the surrounding vegetation. Although the mining area has been in an expanding state, the vegetation in the mining area has improved since 2014 (consistent with the surrounding vegetation), thanks to the increase of precipitation and the strengthening of dust protection measures. Our findings provide accurate data for the dynamic monitoring of vegetation changes in open pit coal mining and surrounding deserts in arid areas, informs managers of mining areas to take more effective measures for environmental protection and pollution control.

Key words: strip coal mining, desert vegetation, spatiotemporal variation, distance of disturbance, climate change, precipitation, wucaiwan,xinjiang