地球信息科学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (6): 1349-1356.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2020.190231

• 大数据与城市管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

郑州市市区风环境模拟研究

申鑫杰, 赵芮, 何瑞珍*(), 王琦, 郭煜琛   

  1. 河南农业大学林学院,郑州 450000
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-15 修回日期:2019-12-15 出版日期:2020-06-25 发布日期:2020-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 何瑞珍 E-mail:hrzzjd@126.com
  • 作者简介:申鑫杰(1996— ),女,河南驻马店人,硕士生,主要从事城市微气候方面的研究。E-mail: 1395869927@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31470029);河南省科技厅产学研资助项目(142107000101);河南省高等学校重点科研项目(19A416004)

Research on Urban Wind Environment Simulation: A Case Study of Zhengzhou Central Area

SHEN Xinjie, ZHAO Rui, HE Ruizhen*(), WANG Qi, GUO Yuchen   

  1. College of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450000, China
  • Received:2019-05-15 Revised:2019-12-15 Online:2020-06-25 Published:2020-08-25
  • Contact: HE Ruizhen E-mail:hrzzjd@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31470029);Industry-University-Research Funded Project of Science and Technology Department of Henan Province(142107000101);Key Scientific Research Project of Universities in Henan Province(19A416004)

摘要:

城市风环境是城市微气候研究的一个重要方向,对分析城市热岛效应、空气流通等具有重要意义。本文以郑州市市区为例,使用1971—2018年气象观测数据、2018年建筑分布数据(OSM)和2016年资源三号卫星数据作为数据源,通过运用气象学和GIS技术结合的方法,探究潜在通风廊道,科学量化城市形态对风环境的影响。研究首先借助WindNinja软件,对城市背景风环境进行模拟分析,该计算方法提高了风道定位的精度。然后利用卫星遥感数据制作了数字高程模型(DSM),结合OSM计算下垫面地表粗糙度。进一步借助ArcGIS软件,利用最小成本路径法(LCP)确定城市潜在通风廊道的位置。结果表明:① 郑州市近年来平均风速缓慢下降,平均每10年下降0.26 m/s;全年主导风向东北风进入城市后受城市形态影响在京广铁路线附近以西逐渐转为东北偏东风,其中在京广快速路以东风速较高,在京广快速路以西风速较低;② 金水区西部、中原区、二七区以及管城区的地表粗糙度较高,通风环境较差;金水区东部和惠济区的地表粗糙度较低,通风环境较好;③根据盛行风向模拟的潜在通风廊道,其共同特点是趋向于低粗糙度的地区。

关键词: 城市风环境, 城市形态, 地表粗糙度, 最小成本路径, 潜在通风廊道, 主导风向, 郑州市

Abstract:

Urban wind environment is an important research field of urban climate, which is of great significance to the analysis of urban heat island effect and ventilation. Taking the central area of Zhengzhou city as an example, this paper used meteorological observation data in 1971-2018, the data from ZY-3 satellite in 2016, and then combined with the Open Street Map (OSM) data in 2018 to explore potential ventilation corridors and scientifically quantify the impact of urban form on the wind environment through the combination of meteorology and GIS technology. In this study, the wind environment in urban background was firstly simulated and analyzed with the help of WindNinja software, which improved the accuracy of potential ventilation corridors of the city. The Digital Surface Model (DSM) was made based on the data from ZY-3 satellite in 2016, and then combined with the OSM data in 2018 to calculate the surface roughness of the underlying surface. Then ArcGIS software was used to locate and analyze the location of the potential ventilation corridors in the city by means of the Least Cost Path analysis (LCP). The results were as follows: (1) Average wind speed in Zhengzhou declined slowly with an average rate of 0.26 m/s per decade; The prevailing wind throughout the year was northeast wind, which changed in wind speed and direction after entering the city due to the influence of urban form. In particular, the northeast wind gradually changed to northeast easterly wind in the west of the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway. And the wind speed in the east of the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway was relatively higher than in the west of the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway. (2) The surface roughness of Zhongyuan District, Erqi District, Guancheng District and the western part of Jinshui District was high. The wind speed decreased and the wind direction changed greatly after the prevailing wind entering these study areas, and the overall ventilation environment of those four districts was poor. The surface roughness of the eastern part of Jinshui District and Huiji District was relatively low, with relatively good ventilation conditions. After the prevailing wind entered these areas, the wind speed increased and the wind direction changed less. (3) The common feature of the potential ventilation corridors, which were simulated according to the prevailing wind direction, was that the location tended to be low roughness areas. In these areas, the concentration of ventilation paths was lower and there were more potential ventilation corridors.

Key words: urban wind environment, urban form, surface roughness, least cost path analysis, potential ventilation corridors, the prevailing wind, Zhengzhou