地球信息科学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (2): 231-245.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2020.190286

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于PCA-GWR方法的村级贫困时空格局及致贫因素分析

罗耀文1, 任周鹏2, 葛咏2,*(), 韩李涛1, 刘梦晓2, 何亚文3   

  1. 1. 山东科技大学测绘科学与工程学院,青岛 266590
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    3. 中国石油大学(华东),青岛 266580
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-10 修回日期:2019-11-22 出版日期:2020-02-25 发布日期:2020-04-13
  • 通讯作者: 葛咏 E-mail:gey@lreis.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:罗耀文(1994— ),女,山东淄博人,硕士生,研究方向为贫困时空分析。E-mail: luoyw@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家杰出青年基金项目(41725006);山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2017MD003)

Analysis on Spatio-temporal Patterns and Drivers of Poverty at Village Level based on PCA-GWR

LUO Yaowen1, REN Zhoupeng2, GE Yong2,*(), HAN Litao1, LIU Mengxiao2, HE Yawen3   

  1. 1. College of Geomatics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3. China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, China
  • Received:2019-06-10 Revised:2019-11-22 Online:2020-02-25 Published:2020-04-13
  • Contact: GE Yong E-mail:gey@lreis.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    The National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars(41725006);Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province(ZR2017MD003)

摘要:

探究贫困的时空变化及识别致贫因素,可以为扶贫政策的制定和实施提供参考。贫困是由多种因素造成的,地理加权回归(GWR)可以分析各因素对贫困的影响在空间上的差异,但致贫因素之间存在较强的相关性会导致多重共线性问题。本文探索了基于主成分的地理加权回归方法(PCA-GWR),结合自然、经济和社会属性对贫困空间格局特征进行因素分析;为探究贫困的时空变化规律,探索用全局Moran's I指数、局部G系数对村级贫困发生率的时空格局变化特征进行分析。并以江西省永新县为研究区为实验区进行分析。研究结果表明:① PCA-GWR模型中变量的方差膨胀因子(VIF)值明显低于GWR模型变量的VIF值,PCA-GWR模型有效地解决了GWR模型中存在的多重共线性问题;② 永新县贫困格局分布与地形、植被分布等自然因素和低学历、缺乏劳动力、疾病等乡村主体自生发展能力相关,且每种影响因素与贫困发生率的关系呈现出不同的空间模式;③ 2013—2017年永新县贫困发生率从11.27%下降至0.97%,呈现出逐年下降趋势,且村间贫困差距逐年缩小,其中2013—2015年贫困发生率分布西高东低,2016年和2017年整体值较低;④ 从空间相关性来看:全局上,2013—2016年表现出空间正相关,2017年呈现随机分布;局部上,2013—2016年的冷、热点分布变化不大,冷点分布在中部,热点聚集在西南部,2017年热点分布在南部,冷点零星分布于北部地区。研究结果可为政府扶贫政策的制定提供参考。

关键词: PCA-GWR模型, 多重共线性, 主成分分析, 致贫因素, 时空格局, 永新县

Abstract:

Exploring the spatio-temporal changes of poverty and identifying the factors that cause poverty can provide reference for the formulation and implementation of poverty alleviation policies.Poverty is caused by many factors. Geographically Weighted Regression model (GWR) can analyze the spatial differences in the influence of various factors on poverty,but there is a strong correlation between the factors causing poverty,which leadsto multicollinearity. Principal Component-based Geographic Weighted Regression method (PCA-GWR) is usedin this paper by combining the natural, economic and social attributes toanalyze the characteristics of the spatial pattern of poverty.In order to explore the spatio-temporal changes of poverty, this paper analyzes the temporal and spatial patterns of village-level poverty incidence from 2013 to 2017. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was performed using global Moran's I index and local G coefficientrespectively.Selecting Yongxin County of Jiangxi Province as the research area, the results show that: (1) There is a high correlation between independent variables affecting poverty. When these variables are put together in GWR model, the multicollinearity problem is easy to occur, and the results of GWRanalysis are not reliable. In order to eliminate the multicollinearity problem, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the variables that were significantly correlated with the dependent variables. Three principal components were extracted by principal component analysis, including self-development ability of rural subjects, topographic and vegetation index. The Variance Inflation Factors(VIF)value of the variable in the PCA-GWR model is significantly lower than that in the GWR model. The PCA-GWR model effectively solves the multicollinearity problem in the GWR model. (2) The result of PCA-GWR found that the poverty in Yongxin County is the result of the combination of natural factors such as topographic factors and vegetation distribution and the self-development ability of rural subjects such as low-education, lack of labor, disease. And the effects of these factors presented different spatial patterns. This can provide a reference for the formulation of government poverty alleviation policies. (3) From 2013 to 2017, the incidence of poverty in Yongxin County decreased from 11.27% to 0.97%, showing a downward trend year by year, and the poverty gap between villages decreased year by year. The incidence of poverty from 2013 to 2015 was high in the west and low in the east. The overall value in 2016 and 2017 was low. (4) From the perspective of spatial correlation: on the whole, the spatial correlation between 2013 and 2016 is positive, and it is randomly distributed in 2017; Locally, the distribution of cold and hot spots did not change much from 2013 to 2016, the cold spots were distributed in the middle, and the hot spots were concentrated in the southwest. In 2017, hot spots are distributed in the south, and cold spots are scattered in the north.

Key words: PCA-GWR model, multicollinearity, principal component analysis, causes of poverty, spatio-temporal pattern, Yongxin County