地球信息科学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 1106-1119.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2020.190447

• “空间综合人文学与社会科学”专辑 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于参与式制图方法的景观服务评估与空间结构研究

朱亚茹1, 高峻1,*(), 邴振华2, 张中浩1, 付晶1   

  1. 1.上海师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 上海 200234
    2.上海商学院酒店管理学院, 上海 200235
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-15 修回日期:2020-12-23 出版日期:2020-05-25 发布日期:2020-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 高峻 E-mail:gaojun@shnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:朱亚茹(1987— ),女,江苏扬州人,博士生,研究方向为景观可持续发展与环境管理。E-mail:ruru1987713@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    科技部国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0506404)

Using Participatory Mapping to Assess Landscape Services in Jiuzhaigou National Reserve

ZHU Yaru1, GAO Jun1,*(), BING Zhenhua2, ZHANG Zhonghao1, FU Jing1   

  1. 1. School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
    2. School of Hotel Management,Shanghai Business School, Shanghai 200235, China
  • Received:2019-08-15 Revised:2020-12-23 Online:2020-05-25 Published:2020-07-25
  • Contact: GAO Jun E-mail:gaojun@shnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    The National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFC0506404)

摘要:

景观服务评估核心是人与环境之间复杂的动态关系,基于利益相关者的参与式制图方法是建立景观服务分类体系和量化指标的有效途径。本文采用参与式制图方法,以九寨沟自然保护区为例,根据景观服务分类研究成果,并结合九寨沟自然资源特点和景观服务使用者半结构式访谈数据,提出了适用于九寨沟的景观服务指标体系。本研究方法以管理局工作人员、居民和游客等服务使用者作为参与式调研对象,分别就其需求和景观服务感知程度进行半结构式访谈,并利用GIS技术将数据空间位置和功能属性结合,得到九寨沟有3大类景观服务和17个相关指标,以及737个景观服务点。通过研究结果可知,当地村落建筑与众多景观服务指标(包括观鸟场所、野营旅游、民俗与节庆等13个指标)具有极强的空间关联性。同时,景观服务使用者感知的景观价值在空间上属于聚集分布形式,主要围绕着开放生态旅游的3条沟谷分布,并向外围扩散。其中景观服务的“高—高”空间聚集区主要分布在沟口等与人类需求密切联系的区域,而景观服务的“低—低”空间聚集区则主要分布在原始森林等与人类居住、活动相距较远的区域。综上,基于参与式制图方法建立的景观服务分类和空间分析,发现九寨沟景观服务的空间位置与使用者紧密相关,其景观价值的空间结构特征是服务使用者与环境长期互动的结果,该结果可以用来引导并进一步优化九寨沟的功能分区规划。

关键词: 参与式制图, 参与式GIS, 生态系统服务, 景观服务, 景观服务指标, 空间结构, 九寨沟

Abstract:

Landscape ecology is the scientific basis of sustainable landscape development. Participatory mapping based on stakeholders is effective to establish the landscape service category system and quantitative indicators. The evaluation of landscape services primarily focused on the complex and dynamic relationships between human and environment. Landscape service is a special type of ecosystem services. It emphasizes the landscape functions and spatial characteristics that are being used by human, as well as ecosystem service shifts from simple ecological protection to integrated landscape architecture. This paper aimed to evaluate the potential of using local stakeholders as key informants in the spatial assessment of landscape service indicators. In our study, we took Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve as an example to introduce the “landscape services” and mapping of all the landscape service indicators based on local stakeholders. A total of 17 different material, and non-material cultural landscape service indicators were established and mapped separately on an aerial image using local stakeholders in semi-structured interviews. These landscape service indicators were presented and analyzed spatially for better understanding of landscape-level service structure, pattern and relationship. Assessing the wide variety of landscape services, e.g. livestock, medicinal resources and dwelling, requires a wide range of data sources for their identification. In total, we obtained 737 landscape service points with participatory mapping in analysis. Our results show that local involvement and participatory mapping enhanced the assessment of landscape services. Spiritual belief, religious activities and residents' village buildings had a high synergistic relationship. Jiuzhaigou scenic spot service had positive spatial correlation, and the observed values ??in the unit shared a same trend. The local autocorrelation indicated a significant local spatial agglomeration phenomenon at the Jiuzhaigou landscape service point, and the "high-high" clusters of landscape services were mainly distributed at the entrance. While the “low-low” clusters of landscape services are mainly distributed in areas such as forests, which was far away from human habitation and activity areas. Many material landscape service indicators were spatially separated and scattered in the study area. And the well-being of locals also depended on the non-material services, e.g., public places of social interaction and cultural traditions. These benefits from nature demonstrated spatial clustering and coexistence, and were close to settlements where the highest intensity and diversity were found. Based on our results, the integration of participatory mapping methods in landscape service assessment is crucial for collaborative, bottom-up landscape management. It is also essential to capture the non-utilitarian value of landscape and to assess its social and cultural landscape services, which are less evaluated in many studies.

Key words: participatory mapping, participatory GIS, ecosystem services, landscape services, landscape service indicators, spatial pattern, Jiuzhaigou