地球信息科学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 816-826.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2020.190519

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黄土高原沟谷地貌发育演化研究进展与展望

熊礼阳1,2,3, 汤国安1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1. 虚拟地理环境教育部重点实验室(南京师范大学),南京 210023
    2. 南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
    3. 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-13 修回日期:2019-11-17 出版日期:2020-04-25 发布日期:2020-06-10
  • 通讯作者: 汤国安 E-mail:tangguoan@njnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:熊礼阳(1989— ),男,江西南昌人,博士,副教授,主要从事黄土地貌演化与数字地形分析研究。E-mail:xiongliyang@njnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41930102);国家自然科学基金项目(41971333);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目

Research Progresses and Prospects of Gully Landform Formation and Evolution in the Loess Plateau of China

XIONG Liyang1,2,3, TANG Guoan1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment, Ministry of Education, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2019-09-13 Revised:2019-11-17 Online:2020-04-25 Published:2020-06-10
  • Contact: TANG Guoan E-mail:tangguoan@njnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41930102);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971333);Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions

摘要:

黄土沟谷是黄土地貌中最有活力、最具变化、最富特色的对象单元,黄土高原千沟万壑的地貌形态以及触目惊心的侵蚀状态也让区域内沟谷地貌的形成、发育及演化问题成为研究中焦点及前沿性科学问题。近年来,诸多学者采用地学测年法、特征表达法、监测模拟法力图实现对黄土沟谷发育演化进程中“过去-现代-未来”的科学认知。这些研究在相当程度上丰富了黄土沟谷发育过程的认知。本文梳理了黄土高原沟谷地貌演化相关研究的现状,并从黄土高原地貌演化、黄土沟谷发育、基于DEM的沟谷信息提取与表达等研究进行了系统的回顾、梳理与分析。此外,本文提出“黄土沟道剖面群组”概念与方法,试图从新的视角审视黄土沟谷地貌发育演化过程。沟道剖面在黄土沟谷发育演化进程中传递物质能量和累积地形动力,并通过径流节点的串联实现剖面群的连接与组合,形成独特的剖面“群组”模式;该沟道剖面群组是集黄土沟谷地貌特征与过程于一体的综合信息集成体,其三维空间结构是对黄土沟谷地貌发育演化的高度抽象与映射,并可望进一步丰富黄土高原数字地形分析理论与方法体系,为黄土高原黄土地貌成因机理与空间分异格局带来创新的认识。

关键词: 黄土高原, 沟谷演化, 数字高程模型, 沟道剖面群组, 黄土地貌, 沟谷特征, 地形因子, 数字地形分析

Abstract:

Loess gully should be the most dynamic and changeable landform unit among the loess landforms in the Loess Plateau of China. In this plateau, the surface morphology presents thousands of gullies with a severe soil erosion pattern. This specific environment makes the area to a research focus both in the studies of geomorphology and soil erosion, especially the frontier questions of the formation and evolution of the gully landform. In the recent years, methods of geochronological dating, geomorphological feature expression, and monitoring simulation have been used by many scholars for better understanding of loess gully formation from the perspective of "past", "now", and "future". These advances have enriched our knowledge of loess gully formation and evolutionary processes. In this research, we systematically analyzed the research status quo and progresses of related studies on loess gully evolution in the Loess Plateau. These related studies include the landform evolution in the Loess Plateau, the loess gully formation, and the gully information extraction and expression using the DEM data. We argued that existing studies of loess gully formation and evolution should be further improved, with especially the help of theories and methods of the modern geographical information science. To this end, we proposed the concept of loess gully profile combination, trying to understand loess gully formation and evolutionary processes from a new perspective. The profile of gully transfers matter energy and accumulates terrain power during loess gully evolution. In addition, with the connection of runoff nodes, different gully profiles are connected and combined with each other, forming a specific pattern of gully profile combination. This combination should be a comprehensive information integration which integrates features and processes of loess gully landform. The three-dimensional spatial structure of the gully profile combination is an abstraction and mapping of loess gully landform evolution. The quantitative expression model of gully profile combination is expected to build, which should be oriented to loess gully landform evolution. This gully profile combination will help to achieve a new understanding of the loess gully formation mechanism during loess gully evolutionary processes, and to refine the gully evolution rules and patterns in the Loess Plateau. The gully profile combination is expected to further enrich digital terrain analysis methods.

Key words: Loess Plateau, gully evolution, Digital Elevation Model, gully profile combination, loess landform, gully features, terrain derivatives, Digital Terrain Analysis