地球信息科学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 482-493.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2020.190553

• “数字地形分析”专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

神农架林区植被分布与地形的关系研究

张兴航1,2, 张百平1,*(), 王晶1,2, 姚永慧1, 余付勤1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-27 修回日期:2019-11-14 出版日期:2020-03-25 发布日期:2020-05-18
  • 通讯作者: 张百平 E-mail:zhangbp@lreis.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:张兴航(1992— ),女,河北沙河人,博士生,主要从事山地GIS、山地生态环境研究。E-mail:jhj580724@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技部基础资源调查专项(2017FY100900)

Study on the Relationship between Terrain and Distribution of the Vegetation in Shennongjia Forestry District

ZHANG Xinghang1,2, ZHANG Baiping1,*(), WANG Jing1,2, YAO Yonghui1, YU Fuqin1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-09-27 Revised:2019-11-14 Online:2020-03-25 Published:2020-05-18
  • Contact: ZHANG Baiping E-mail:zhangbp@lreis.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Science and Technology Basic Resource Investigation Program(2017FY100900)

摘要:

神农架林区是我国物种多样性最为丰富的地区之一,地形地貌复杂,对植被分布影响巨大。本文利用该地区2007年数字高程数据、2007年植被分布图以及2017年野外实地调查数据,基于最大熵模型和空间分析理论,从植被类型和种群两个角度研究该地区不同尺度植被空间分布的地形特征,分别量化植被类型和种群空间分布的地形范围,得到植被类型与地形因子关系模型、植被种群与地形因子关系模型。结果表明:① 神农架林区影响植被空间分布的地形因子不同,其中影响针叶林分布的最重要的地形因子是高程和高程变异系数,影响阔叶林分布的是高程和坡向,影响灌丛分布的是坡向变率和坡向,影响草丛分布的较为分散;② 典型植被种群分布的地形范围和植被类型的基本一致,其中90%针叶林分布在高程1600~2600 m间,典型种群巴山冷杉和华山松主要分布在高程1700~3200 m和1700~2200 m;85%的阔叶林分布在高程1000~2000 m间,典型种群青冈类和鹅耳枥主要分布在高程1200~2200 m间;95%的灌丛分布在坡向变率0~40°间,典型种群杜鹃和蔷薇主要分布在坡向变率小于40°的范围,但相应的关系模型存在差异,植被类型与地形因子为高斯模型,典型种群与地形因子关系模型相对复杂,不同种群的分布模式不同;③ 虽然坡度常作为数字地形的重要因子,但本文研究发现该地区坡度对植被类型和种群分布的影响不明显。研究结果可为神农架林区植被保护和恢复,以及植被规划和管理提供基础参考。

关键词: 植被分布, 典型种群, 地形因子, 最大熵模型, 空间分析, 神农架, 关系模型, 高斯分布

Abstract:

The Shennongjia Forestry District is one of the areas with the highest biodiversity in China. The complex topography exerts great influence on vegetation distribution in this region. This paper used the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt), digital elevation data, vegetation distribution map, and field-surveyed data, to study how the topographic characteristics affect local typical vegetation distributions at two scales, i.e., vegetation type and population levels. The relationship models between vegetation type and topographic factors, and between plant population and topographic factors were established respectively by quantifying the topographic ranges of vegetation types and plant species. Results show that: (1) the spatial distribution of different vegetation types was affected by different topographic factors. The distribution of coniferous forests was affected by elevation and coefficient of variation in elevation, the distribution of broad-leaved forests was controlled by elevation and aspect, and the distribution of shrubs was controlled by aspect and the slope of aspect. The factors affecting the distribution of grasses were various. (2) The elevation ranges of typical plant species were generally consistent with those of vegetation types. Specifically, 90% of coniferous forests were distributed at elevation between 1600 and 2600 m, and the typical populations of Abies fargesii and Pinus armandii were distributed at elevation of 1700~3200 m. 85% of the broad-leaved forests were distributed within the range of 1000 m to 2000 m in elevation, and the typical populations of Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Carpinus turczaninowii concentrated at elevation between1000 to 2000 m. 95% of shrubs occurred at slope of aspect within 0~40 degrees, and the typical populations of Rhododendron simsii and Rosaceae mainly occurred at slope of aspect less than 40 degrees. The relationship models used for vegetation types and plant species were different. The relationship between vegetation types and topographic factors was fitted using Gauss model. While the relationship between typical species and topographic factors was relatively complex, and the distribution patterns of different species were even different. (3) Vegetation distribution showed a rather weak relationship with typical slope characteristic. This study provides a basic reference for vegetation protection, vegetation restoration, and vegetation management in the Shennongjia region.

Key words: spatial distribution of vegetation, typical plant species, topographic factors, maximum entropy model, spatial analysis, Shennongjia, relationship models, Gaussian distribution