地球信息科学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (12): 2289-2303.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2020.190765

• 地球信息科学理论与方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

面向互联网信息抽取的海洋环境灾害链本体构建——以台风灾害为例

贾梦姝1,2(), 张宇1,*(), 潘婷婷1,2, 吴文周1,3, 苏奋振1,3   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3.中国南海研究协同创新中心,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-11 修回日期:2020-03-31 出版日期:2020-12-25 发布日期:2021-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 张宇 E-mail:jiamengshu17@mails.ucas.ac.cn;zhangyu@lreis.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:贾梦姝(1995— ),女,内蒙古赤峰人,硕士生,主要从事地理信息挖掘研究。E-mail: jiamengshu17@mails.ucas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC1405302)

Ontology Modeling of Marine Environmental Disaster Chain for Internet Information Extraction: A Case Study on Typhoon Disaster

JIA Mengshu1,2(), ZHANG Yu1,*(), PAN Tingting1,2, WU Wenzhou1,3, SU Fenzhen1,3   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Collaborative Innovation Center of South China Sea Studies, Nanjing University, Jiangsu, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2019-12-11 Revised:2020-03-31 Online:2020-12-25 Published:2021-02-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Yu E-mail:jiamengshu17@mails.ucas.ac.cn;zhangyu@lreis.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFC1405302)

摘要:

全球气候变化加剧了海洋环境灾害的影响力与破坏力,实时灾情信息获取与分析成为灾害应急处置中的关键环节。与具有延迟性的传统对地观测网络相比,基于互联网的众包地理信息以其实时性在受灾情况评估与灾害应急处置中得到广泛重视。为获取互联网文本中隐含的海洋环境灾害信息,探究灾害对人群行为活动的影响,本文着重关注海洋环境灾害发展的时空过程特性,从灾害链的角度分析灾害发生发展过程中所涉及的诸多要素,在收集整理海洋环境灾害相关知识的基础之上,采用五元组(概念、关系、属性、规则和实例)进行本体的逻辑结构表达,构建了用于信息抽取的海洋环境灾害链本体,其包含描述海洋环境灾害知识体系的海洋环境灾害本体、受到海洋环境灾害作用的地理对象本体以及在灾害发生、发展、结束的时空过程中产生的相应的人类应急处置本体。最后,本文以台风灾害为例,通过台风灾害链知识建模,实现互联网灾害信息抽取与时空变化过程分析。结果表明:基于海洋环境灾害链的互联网文本信息抽取可以获取隐藏在互联网文本中的灾害描述信息,能够分析灾害的发展变化过程及其对人群行为活动的影响,为灾害防治与应急救援提供一定科学支持。

关键词: 互联网信息, 信息抽取, 自然语言处理, 海洋环境灾害链, 灾害过程建模, 本体, 台风灾害链, 时空变化分析

Abstract:

Global climate change has increased the impact and destructive power of marine environmental disasters. Real-time disaster information acquisition and analysis have become a key process in disaster emergency response. Compared with traditional earth observation network with delay effect, the crowdsourcing geographic information based on the Internet has been widely valued in disaster situation assessment and emergency response for its real-time nature. Marine environmental disasters include not only one single disaster but also a series of secondary and derived disasters caused by a single disaster. The latter are the extension and expansion of a disaster across the space and time dimensions, which continue to affect human activities. The analysis of a single disaster is difficult to fully explain the temporal and spatial evolution of a disaster to further explore its scope and degree of impact. In order to obtain information on marine environmental disasters implied in the Internet texts and explore the impact of disasters on human activities, this article builds a marine environmental disaster chain ontology based on collected marine environmental disaster-related knowledge and using five-tuples (concepts, relationships, properties, rules, and instances) to represent the logical structure of the ontology, which integrates the marine environmental disaster ontology describing the marine environmental disaster knowledge system, the geographical object ontology affected by the marine environmental disasters, and the corresponding human emergency ontology generated from the spatiotemporal processes of a disaster's occurrence, development, and end together. This article not only analyzes the concept of marine environmental disasters from the perspective of geographical events but also focuses on the characteristics of temporal and spatial processes of the development of marine environmental disasters. Many factors involved in the development of disasters from the perspective of the disaster chain are also analyzed. Thus, our paper breaks through the limitation of using a single disaster to represent the entire disaster process in traditional analysis and comprehensively analyzes the disaster process-related information. Finally, this article takes typhoon disaster as an example based on the typhoon disaster chain to illustrate the disaster information extraction from the Internet texts and analyze the spatiotemporal changes of typhoon disaster, so as to provide effective support for disaster prevention and emergency response.

Key words: internet information, information extraction, natural language processing, marine environmental disaster chain, disaster process modeling, ontology, Typhoon disaster, analysis of spatiotemporal changes