地球信息科学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (1): 2-10.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2020.190802

• 专辑:地理智能 • 上一篇    下一篇

从地理信息系统到智能地理系统

苏奋振1,2,3, 吴文周1,2, 张宇1,2,*(), 康路1,2, 李晓恩1,2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国南海研究协同创新中心,南京 210023
    3. 兰州交通大学测绘与地理信息学院,兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-02 修回日期:2019-12-26 出版日期:2020-01-25 发布日期:2020-04-08
  • 通讯作者: 张宇 E-mail:zhangyu@lreis.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:苏奋振(1972— ),男,福建永定人,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事高维动态时空信息的组织管理、智能挖掘和系统开发等研究工作。E-mail: sufz@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC1402903);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC1402902)

From Geographic Information System to Intelligent Geographic System

SU Fenzhen1,2,3, WU Wenzhou1,2, ZHANG Yu1,2,*(), KANG Lu1,2, LI Xiaoen1,2,3   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Collaborative Innovation Center of South China Sea Studies, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. Faculty of Geomatics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2019-12-02 Revised:2019-12-26 Online:2020-01-25 Published:2020-04-08
  • Contact: ZHANG Yu E-mail:zhangyu@lreis.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China(2016YFC1402903);National Key R&D Program of China(2016YFC1402902)

摘要:

地理系统是自然与人文要素构成的,分布在地球表层空间中,具有生成、维持或转换物质形态和能量形式,或驱动物质和能量流动等功能的有机整体,表征为自然与人文要素及其相互作用的空间分布、结构、格局、演化和功能。地理系统分层级广泛存在于地球表层空间,是客观现实系统。地理信息系统将地理系统用数字投影到信息世界中,进而考察、分析和制定改造地理系统的方案。由此存在2个地理系统,即现实地理系统和信息地理系统,2个地理系统长期独立存在,各自演化。近些年,融合实时观测和物联网技术,现实地理系统的变化或演变已基本能够实时投影到信息地理系统中,即2个系统不再是独立演化,信息地理系统成为现实地理系统的镜像,现实地理系统一旦发生变化,信息地理系统同步变化。当前,人类科技正以前所未有的速度发展,特别是云服务、大数据、人工智能的异常迅猛发展,使得信息地理系统不再满足于成为现实地理系统的镜像,开始利用人工智能和无人自动控制技术,实现与现实世界的融合,即通过信息地理系统的操作,实现现实地理系统的改变。如此,未来现实地理系统与信息地理系统的界线日趋模糊,直至2个系统完全融合,不再区分现实地理系统和信息地理系统。本文暂且以智能地理系统指征这种融合2个世界的系统,并以南海岛礁的无人值守智能系统为例,展示现实地理系统与信息地理系统的融合与操作交互,实现岛礁地理环境和人工设施监测、保护、应对和操作的无人化和智能化。

关键词: 智能地理系统, 虚拟现实, 物联网, 人工智能

Abstract:

Geographical system, composed of natural and human elements, distributed in the earth's surface space, is provided with the functions of generating, maintaining or transforming material forms and energy forms, or driving the flow of material and energy. It is characterized by natural and human elements and their interactions on spatial distribution, structure, pattern, evolution and function factors. Geographical system is an objective reality system which generally consisted in earth with multi-levels. The geographic system was represented by the geographic information system by a information world with digital form. Then make the plans to transform geographical system by investigating and analyzing the received information. Therefore, two geographic systems, namely real geographic system and information geographic system, are co-existed for a long time and evolved independently. In recent years, with the integration of real-time observation and Internet of Things Technology (IoT), the real-time representation from the real geographic system represented into the information geographic system is coming true. Therefore, two systems evolve no longer independently, and the information geographic system is becoming a mirror of the real geographic system. Once the real geographic system changes, the information geographic system changes simultaneously. At present, the development with an unprecedented speed of human science and technology, especially the cloud services, big data and artificial intelligence, makes the information geographic system no longer be satisfied with being a mirror of the real geographic system. The artificial intelligence and unmanned automation control technology are adopted to achieve the integration of the real world and information world. The real geographic system can be changed through the operation of information geographic system. In the future, the boundary between the real geographic system and the information geographic system will become blurred and the two systems will be fully integrated with no distinguish at last. This article takes the intelligent geographic system to indicate this system, which integrates two worlds, and uses an unattended intelligent system designed for the South Island Reef as an example to show the integration and interoperation of the real geographic system and the information geographic system. The system realizes unmanned and intelligent monitoring, protection, response and operation for the island reef geographic environment and artificial facilities.

Key words: intelligent geographic system, virtual reality, internet of things, artificial intelligence