地球信息科学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 673-679.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2020.200069

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地理相似性:地理学的第三定律?

朱阿兴1,2,3,4,*(), 闾国年1,2, 周成虎3, 秦承志3   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
    2. 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-11 修回日期:2020-03-16 出版日期:2020-04-25 发布日期:2020-06-10
  • 通讯作者: 朱阿兴 E-mail:azhu@wisc.edu
  • 作者简介:朱阿兴(1962— ),男,浙江长兴人,教授,主要从事空间推测、流域系统综合模拟与情景分析、地学易计算等研究。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41431177);国家自然科学基金项目(41871300);国家自然科学基金项目(41421001);国家自然科学基金项目(41930648);中国科学院“百人计划”项目;国家“千人计划”项目;国家“863”计划项目(2011AA120305);国家“973”计划项目(2015CB954102);美国威斯康星大学项目“Vilas Associate Award”、“Hamel Faculty Fellow Award”、“Manasse Chair Professorship”

Geographic Similarity: Third Law of Geography?

ZHU Axing1,2,3,4,*(), LV Guonian1,2, ZHOU Chenghu3, QIN Chengzhi3   

  1. 1. School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2020-02-11 Revised:2020-03-16 Online:2020-04-25 Published:2020-06-10
  • Contact: ZHU Axing E-mail:azhu@wisc.edu
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41431177);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41871300);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41421001);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41930648);Support from Chinese Academy of Sciences;Support from Nanjing Normal University;National "863" Program(2011AA120305);National "973" Program(2015CB954102);University of Wisconsin Program Funding: Vilas Associate Award, Hamel Faculty Fellow Award, Manasse Chair Professorship

摘要:

定律对知识的理解和传播具有极大的推动作用。本文通过对比地理学中的定律和物理学中的定律的异同之处,认为地理学的定律虽然在形式上和提出的方式上与经典的力学定律有所区别,但仍符合人们对“定律”的定义。在共识地理学定律存在的前提下,本文阐述了地理学的第一定律和第二定律中所体现出的地理学定律的特征——描述性和归纳性。基于这些对地理学定律所具有的特征的认识,本文首先介绍了Zhu等从空间推测的角度将所提出的地理学第三定律,即“地理环境越相似,地理特征越相近”,或称地理相似性定律。本文从普遍性、独立性和应用性3个方面探讨了地理相似性是否可以作为地理学的一个定律,认为地理相似性与地理学第一和第二定律相比,有着同样的普遍性,且与第一和第二定律所涉及的规律有着本质上的区别,在应用上可能解决第一和第二定律所面临的挑战,因此应可作为地理学第三定律。

关键词: 定律, 地理学第一定律, 地理学第二定律, 地理学第三定律, 地理相似性

Abstract:

Laws, in expressing the relationships that existed in the world, are powerful ways for people to understand and communicate human understandings. In this paper through the comparison of laws in geography and those well accepted laws in physics (namely Newton's Laws), we concluded that the laws in geography also fit the definition of "law" albeit the laws in geography are different from the laws in physics in how they are generated and how they are expressed. We further compared the geographic similarity principle or the Third Law of Geography as suggested by Zhu et al (Annals of GIS, 2018,24(4):225-240) with the existing laws of geography from the perspectives of broadness, independence and applicability and found that the geographic similarity principle has the similar broad implications in geography as the other two laws but it is fundamentally different from the other two. It solves problems in geographic analysis that the other two were found to be insufficient. We thus believe that geographic similarity principle would serve a great candidate of the Third Law of Geography.

Key words: law, First Law of Geography, Second Law of Geography, Third Law of Geography, geographic similarity