地球信息科学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (7): 1408-1423.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2020.200070

• 专栏:一带一路重大工程遥感 • 上一篇    下一篇

工程项目地球大数据监测与分析理论框架及研究进展

邬明权1(), 王标才2, 牛铮1,3, 黄文江1   

  1. 1.中国科学院空天信息创新研究院 遥感科学国家重点实验室,北京 100101;
    2.中交公路规范设计院有限公司,北京 100088;
    3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-11 修回日期:2020-06-13 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 邬明权 E-mail:wumq@aircas.ac.cn;wumq@aircas.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:邬明权(1983— ),男,湖南株洲人,博士,副研究员,主要从事工程遥感监测研究。E-mail:wumq@aircas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项“地球大数据科学工程”(XDA19030304);中国科学院青年创新促进会(2017089)

Theoretical Framework and Research Progress of Big Earth Data Technology in Projects Construction

WU Mingquan1(), WANG Biaocai2, NIU Zheng1,3, HUANG Wenjiang1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. China Communications Construction Company Highway Consultants Company Limited, Beijing 100088, China;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-02-11 Revised:2020-06-13 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-09-25
  • Contact: WU Mingquan E-mail:wumq@aircas.ac.cn;wumq@aircas.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA19030304);Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Science(2017089)

摘要:

空间信息是工程项目建设的基础。测绘、遥感、GPS和GIS等空间信息采集技术在支撑工程项目向更高、更大、更安全等方向发展中发挥了重要作用。随着信息采集技术的迅速发展,大数据技术推动了各行各业迈入了新台阶。海量的空间信息正促进工程项目建设向更智能、更科学、更环保发展。在大数据时代,如何开展工程项目的大数据监测与分析成为了工程遥感监测领域新的研究方向。与此同时,“一带一路”倡议提出以来,迅猛发展的我国境外工程项目对工程项目的投资决策、建设与运营管理都提出了更高的要求。地球大数据技术可以为境外工程项目的前期规划、可行性研究、设计、安全风险评估、施工、后期运营管养及监管提供新技术、新方法和新手段。围绕工程项目大数据监测与分析的理论方法体系与科学问题,面向我国境外工程项目建设中对大数据分析技术的迫切需求,本文系统性的阐述了工程项目地球大数据监测与分析的概念、用户需求、研究内容、主要技术方法和远景目标,以期为未来相关研究工作提供指引。在此基础上,总结了工程项目地球大数据监测与分析的研究进展。研究发现:① 空间信息采集技术的快速发展,使得工程建设比任何时候都能获得更准确、更及时、更丰富的空间信息,工程项目的大数据监测与分析这一新的研究方向应孕而生,可促进工程项目向更智能、更科学、更环保发展;② 工程项目的现状调查、规划、可行性研究、勘察设计、施工和运营与监管等各个环节都对地球大数据监测技术有大量的需求;③ 地球大数据技术在我国工程项目建设中应用的相关研究还处于较为初级的具体技术服务阶段,还难以为工程项目投资决策提供支持,特别是境外工程项目的相关研究尚处于起步阶段,而我国境外工程项目建设存在基础数据匮乏、项目总体规划和模拟水平较低、监管能力弱和人文政治鸿沟风险高等问题,迫切需要开展地球大数据监测与分析,提高投资决策科学水平,降低境外投资风险。

关键词: 一带一路, 工程项目, 地球大数据, 规划设计, 风险, 监管, 勘察设计, 遥感

Abstract:

Spatial information is the foundation of project construction. Surveying and mapping, remote sensing, global positioning system, geographic information system, and other spatial information technologies play an important role in supporting the development of the projects to become higher, larger, and safer. With the rapid development of information collection technology, big data technology has promoted all walks of life to a new level. Massive spatial information is promoting the construction of engineering projects to be more intelligent, more scientific, and more environmentally friendly. In the era of big data, how to use big data technology in the construction of engineering projects has become a new research direction in the field of remote sensing monitoring of engineering projects. At the same time, since the "Belt and Road" initiative was proposed, the rapid development of our country's overseas engineering projects has put forward higher requirements on investment decision-making, construction, and operation management of engineering projects. Big earth data technology can provide new technologies, new methods, and new means for the early planning, feasibility study, design, safety risk assessment, construction, operation management, and supervision of overseas engineering projects. Focusing on the theoretical method system and scientific problems of big data monitoring and analysis of engineering projects, and facing the urgent needs of big data analysis technology in the construction of overseas engineering projects of China, this paper systematically expounds the concept, user needs, research contents, main technical methods, and vision objectives of the monitoring and analysis of big data of engineering projects, with a view to providing guidance for future related research work. On this basis, the research progress of the monitoring and analysis of the big earth data of the engineering project is summarized. The research findings are as follows: (1) with the rapid development of spatial information collection technology, more accurate, timely, and rich spatial information can be obtained in engineering construction than ever before. The new research direction of big data monitoring and analysis of engineering project construction came into being. It can promote the development of engineering project construction to be more intelligent, scientific, and environmentally friendly; (2) there is a great demand for the big earth data technology in all aspects of the project, such as the current situation investigation, planning, project survey and design, construction, operation, and supervision; and (3) the research and application of the big earth data technology in projects construction in China is still at the primary stage of specific technical services, and it is difficult to provide support for the investment decision-making of construction projects, especially related researches of overseas projects are still in its infancy. However, due to problems in the construction of overseas projects of China, such as lack of basic data, low level of overall planning and simulation, weak supervision ability, and high risk of cultural and political gap, there is an urgent need to carry out big earth data monitoring and analysis to improve the scientific level of investment decision-making and reduce the risk of overseas investment.

Key words: one belt and one road, construction project, big earth data, planning and design, risk, supervision, survey and design, remote sensing