地球信息科学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (6): 1358-1369.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2020.200110

• 数据共享与数据挖掘 • 上一篇    下一篇

科学数据共享实践:以国家地球系统科学数据中心为例

杨雅萍1,2,3, 姜侯1,4, 孙九林1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 国家地球系统科学数据中心,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    3. 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心, 南京 210023
    4. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-10 修回日期:2020-04-21 出版日期:2020-06-25 发布日期:2020-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 孙九林 E-mail:sunjl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:杨雅萍(1964— ),女,北京人,高级工程师,主要从事地球系统科学数据共享研究。E-mail: yangyp@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA19020304);国家地球系统科学数据中心(2005DKA32300);中蒙俄国际经济走廊多学科联合考察项目(2017FY101300);中国工程科技知识中心项目(CKCEST-2019-1-4);云南省数据共享发展战略咨询研究(2019YNZH6)

Practice of Scientific Data Sharing: A Case Study of the National Earth System Science Data Center

YANG Yaping1,2,3, JIANG Hou1,4, SUN Jiulin1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1. National Earth System Science Data Center, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
    4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-03-10 Revised:2020-04-21 Online:2020-06-25 Published:2020-08-25
  • Contact: SUN Jiulin E-mail:sunjl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (A)(XDA19020304);National Earth System Science Data Sharing Infrastructure(2005DKA32300);Multidisciplinary Joint Expedition for China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor(2017FY101300);Branch Center Project of Geography, Resources and Ecology of Knowledge Center for Chinese Engineering Sciences and Technology(CKCEST-2019-1-4);Data Sharing Design of Yunnan Province(2019YNZH6)

摘要:

地球系统科学是一门综合性交叉学科,起源于全球变化研究,受益于遥感技术进步,现已进入大数据时代,人工智能技术成为解决地球系统科学前沿问题的新手段。科学数据共享是推动科学发展、提升数据价值的关键,经过长期的探索和实践,全球已形成完善的数据资源管理政策与机制、持续的数据共享服务体系、多元化的科学数据整合模式,并且新的理念不断推动数据共享创新发展,其中“可发现、可访问、可互操作和可重用”原则和数据出版备受推崇。我国颁布了国家层面的政策法规,着重推动国家级科学数据中心建设、科技项目数据资源汇交及数据出版。借鉴国外数据共享经验,结合国内实际发展情况,我国探索出具有中国特色的地球系统科学数据资源分类体系,在元数据、分布式互操作、大数据分析和共享服务等关键技术方面都取得了重大突破。本文以国家地球系统科学数据中心为例,系统梳理了国内地球系统科学领域的数据共享实践进展,详细介绍了国家在地球系统科学领域的数据共享实践及其成效。国家地球系统科学数据共享工作已探索形成成熟稳定的运行服务机制、研制出适用于多源分散地球系统科学数据的标准体系、 建成多学科多时空尺度的地球系统科学数据库群、自主研发海量异构数据共享网络技术体系与服务系统,促进了地球系统科学的科学发展,同时也推动了数据共享理念的传播与推广。然而,数据孤岛现象、共享服务系统标准化程度低、系统技术标准未对接国际规范等问题仍然较为突出,阻碍了地球系统科学数据开放与共享。未来,随着共享个性化需求被激活,定制化的“数据+知识”服务有望成为主流趋势,将给数据共享带来新的机遇和挑战。

关键词: 地球系统科学, 数据共享, 数据资源分类, 大数据, 关键技术, 数据出版, 科技数据汇交, 国家地球系统科学数据中心

Abstract:

Earth System Science (ESS) is a comprehensive interdisciplinary discipline, which originates from the study of global climate change and benefits from the progress of remote sensing technology. Now, ESS has entered the era of big data and artificial intelligence technology has played a key role in solving the frontier problems of ESS. Scientific data sharing is essential for the prosperity of science development and utilization of data value. After long-term exploration and practice, sound data management policies and mechanisms, continuous data sharing service system, and diversified scientific data integration modes have been established around the world. Innovative development of data sharing is going on thanks to the progress of sharing theory and ideas, such as the popular "findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable" FAIR principle and data publishing. China has promulgated policies and regulations at the national level, focusing on promoting the development of national scientific data center, collection and management of scientific data resource from national science projects, as well as data publishing and protection. Combing the experience abroad and the actual situation in China, researchers have built the distinctive classification scheme for ESS data resources and major breakthroughs continuously appear in metadata management, distributed interoperability, big data analysis, scientific data sharing services, and other professional technologies, covering the whole life cycle from data collection, integration, analysis to open and sharing. Taking the National Earth System Science Data Center as an example, we summarize the progress of data sharing services and key technologies, and introduce the practice and achievements in China. At present, the national data sharing work in the field of ESS has contributed towards the formation of mature and stable operation mechanism, established a formal standard framework for multi-source distributed scientific data integration, developed multi-scale geoscience database covering diverse disciplines and themes, and built up distributed service networks and systems suitable for massive heterogeneous data sharing. This work not only promotes the development of Geoscience, but also fastens the dissemination and promotion of data sharing theory. However, issues such as isolated data islands, low-level generalization of service systems, and weak accords with international standards still hinder the advance of data sharing. In the future, with personalized needs for data sharing activated, customized "data + knowledge" services are expected to become the prevailing modes, which will bring new opportunities and challenges to data sharing.

Key words: Earth System Science, data sharing, data resource classification, big data, key technologies, data publishing, scientific project management, National Earth System Science Data Center