地球信息科学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 697-704.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2020.200173

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地学信息图谱思想与实践探索

杨存建*()   

  1. 四川师范大学西南土地资源评价与监测教育部重点实验室,地理与资源科学学院,成都 610068
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-06 修回日期:2020-04-20 出版日期:2020-04-25 发布日期:2020-06-10
  • 通讯作者: 杨存建 E-mail:yangcj2008@126.com
  • 作者简介:杨存建(1967— ),男,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事遥感与GIS应用研究。
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFB0505303)

The Idea of Geo-information Tupu and its Practices

YANG Cunjian*()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Land Resources Evaluation and Monitoring in Southwest, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Geography and Resources Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610068, China
  • Received:2020-04-06 Revised:2020-04-20 Online:2020-04-25 Published:2020-06-10
  • Contact: YANG Cunjian E-mail:yangcj2008@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National key research and development program(2018YFB0505303)

摘要:

本文回顾和综述了陈述彭院士关于地学信息图谱的学术思想,该学术思想来源于陈先生的科学实践。他提出了地学信息图谱的相关概念及其类型体系,地学信息图谱是地学图谱与现代信息技术结合的产物。地学信息图谱的核心在于发现地学时空知识和规律,并能为社会经济建设提供应用服务。按研究对象划分为地学各分支学科的信息图谱和各行业的信息图谱,按功能划分为:征兆图谱、诊断图谱和实现图谱。陈先生发展了地学信息图谱生成的技术方法,提出了地学信息图谱的工作流程,促进了地学信息图谱在经济社会发展中的应用。陈先生指出了发展地学信息图谱的创新方向:创新地学大数据获取技术方法,提升地学信息图谱生成智能化与自动化水平,促进地学信息图谱应用的深度和广度。陈先生指出网格地图是地学信息图谱的重要基础。该思想至今对推动地球信息科学的发展及其在解决国家重大战略需求方面,仍然具有重要的指导意义。总结了在陈先生地学信息图谱思想的指导下,在地学信息图谱方面的一些实践探索和结果,包括:发展了基于知识发现的专题信息提取和多数据多知识协同的精细地表要素获取的技术方法,提高了水体、绿被、积雪和城乡聚落提取以及精细土地利用和精细植被类型信息获取的自动化水平和效率;拓展了时空变化图谱的研究和应用,提升了时空变化图谱生成的智能化水平和效率;地学信息图谱在社会经济发展、生态建设、环境保护和灾害风险防控等方面的应用实践已展示出了巨大前景。最后,结合新时代共建全球人类命运共同体和地球科学国际化的重大战略需求,提出了开展全球地学信息图谱关键技术与应用研究,以期实现地表大观测到大数据,再到大知识大应用的提升转化,支撑地表治理体系和治理能力的现代化,提升地学服务经济社会发展的水平和能力,彰显学科特色与优势。

关键词: 地学图谱, 地学信息图谱, 知识发现, 专题信息提取, 大数据, 过程图谱, 诊断图谱, 图谱应用

Abstract:

The idea of geo-information Tupu is reviewed and summarized by reading and analyzing the theses published by Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Prof. Chen Shupeng in this paper, which come from his scientific probe into geo-system. Geo-information Tupu is the result of combination of Geo-Tupu and information technology, which aims at discovering spatial and temporal knowledge and rule of geo-science, and can provide service to social and economic construction. Geo-information Tupu is classified into different types for each branch of geo-science and each industry according to its research object, and it is also classified into symptom Tupu, diagnosisTupu and realization Tupu according to its function. Prof. Chen developed the technology method for generating geo-information Tupu, proposed the workflow of geo-information Tupu, promoted the application of geo-information Tupu to the economic and social development. Prof. Chen indicated innovation directions of geo-information Tupu development which include innovation of technology and method of obtaining geo-science big data, improvement of intelligent and automatic level of generating geo-information Tupu, and enhancement of the wide and deep application of geo-information Tupu in social and economic construction. Prof. Chen pointed out grid map is important base of geo-information Tupu. The idea of geo-information Tupu proposed by Prof. Chen still has important guidance value in promoting the advance of geo-information science and meeting the major strategic needs of our country. The exploratory practice and results under the guidance of the idea of geo-information Tupu proposed by Prof. Chen were concluded here. The thematic information extraction technology based on knowledge discovery and the fine geo-surface element acquisition technology based on multi-data and multi-knowledge cooperation have been developed in recent years, which improves the automation level and efficiency of obtaining geo-science elements such as waterbody, settlements, green vegetation cover, snow cover, vegetation and landuse types in detail. The study and application of spatio-temporal change information Tupu have been broaden. The intelligent level and efficiency of generating the spatio-temporal change Tupu have been improved. The application of Geo-information Tupuin in social and economic development, ecological construction, environmental protection and disaster risk prevention and control has shown great prospects in recent years. Finally, in order to meet the major strategic needs of jointly building a global community with a shared future for mankind and the internationalization of geo-science in the new era, this paper puts forward the research on the key technologies and its applications of the global geo-science information Tupu, so that the large knowledge are intelligently and automatically discovered from big data of the geo-system through big observation, and the large knowledge is broadly applied to every aspect and every place through internet, which will support the modernization of the governance system and ability of the geo-surface system, and enhance the level and ability of geo-sciences to serve economic and social development, and highlight the characteristics and advantages of the geoscience.

Key words: Geo-Tupu, Geo-information Tupu, Knowledge discovering, Thematic information extraction, Big data, Process Tupu, Diagnosis Tupu, Tupu application