地球信息科学学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (3): 467-478.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2021.200208

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市社区养老设施配置空间均衡研究

李海萍*(), 梁子豪   

  1. 中国人民大学环境学院,北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-28 修回日期:2020-07-14 出版日期:2021-03-25 发布日期:2021-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 李海萍 E-mail:lhping@ruc.edu.cn;lhping@ruc.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:李海萍(1965- ),女,陕西西安人,副教授,主要从事地理信息系统及遥感应用、空间数据分析研究。E-mail: lhping@ruc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国人民大学中央高校建设世界一流大学(学科)和特色发展引导专项资金

Research on Spatial Equilibrium of Urban Community Elderly Care Facilities and its Configuration

LI Haiping*(), LIANG Zihao   

  1. School of Environment & Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2020-04-28 Revised:2020-07-14 Online:2021-03-25 Published:2021-05-25
  • Contact: LI Haiping E-mail:lhping@ruc.edu.cn;lhping@ruc.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by fund for building world-class universities (disciplines) of Renmin University of China

摘要:

我国人口老龄化增速势头不减,存在养老服务业发展不平衡、老龄服务供给不足的矛盾。北京是较早进入老龄化的城市,提出了以居家为主的“9064”养老模式以解决养老资源缺口问题。为促进社区养老服务供给的便利化,提高老年群体对养老服务的“获得感”,本文以北京市海淀区老年人口密度较大的17个街道为研究区,采用百度POI、小区户数、高德地图和遥感影像等多源数据,对老年人口统计数据进行空间网格化,比较国家、省(市)社区养老设施的服务半径及调查所得老年人日常出行特征,引入北京市居住公共服务设施配置指标作为评价标准,应用改进型两步移动搜索算法并构建空间均衡系数,从服务覆盖率、供需比和医疗资源易获性3个方面对社区养老设施进行空间均衡研究。结果表明,研究区内社区养老驿站的数量仍有不足,不同半径下的服务覆盖率和供需比差异显著,500 m半径内的覆盖率仅为23.3%,空间分布不合理是超八成社区养老驿站供需比偏低的主要原因,基层社区卫生机构对医疗资源的易获性有积极作用;社区养老服务发展不均衡,需要进一步优化配置。

关键词: 海淀区, 多源地理信息, 老龄化, 社区养老设施, 均衡系数, 改进型两步移动搜索法, 精细化人口格网, 空间不均衡

Abstract:

With China's rapidly aging population, the contradiction between inadequate elderly service supply and the demands of aging people becomes more serious. Beijing is one of the first cities that has entered the aging society. The "9064" pension model has been suggested to systematically address the shortage of pension resources. In order to provide the convenience of elderly care service and promote the satisfaction of elderly people, 17 communities which have much higher elderly population density in Haidian District are selected as the study area in this study. Based on multi-source data such as Baidu POI, community households, and remote sensing imagery, the statistical data of elderly population are gridded spatially. After the comparison between the national and provincial (municipal) community pension facilities’ service radius and the daily travel characteristics of the elderly people surveyed, residential service facility allocation indicators are chosen as the evaluation criteria. The Modified Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method and the constructed spatial equilibrium coefficient are used to study the equilibrium of community pension facilities in three aspects: service coverage, facility capacity, and availability of medical resources. The results show that there are shortages of community care stations. The differences of service coverage and capacity are significant under different service radius. The service coverage of community care stations is only 23.3% within a 500-meter radius. The main reason of the low capacity of most elderly care stations is their uneven distribution in space. Local community health care facilities have positive effects on the availability of medical resources. As there exists nonequilibrium development of the elderly care service, further optimization of their allocation would be needed.

Key words: Haidian district, multi-source geographic information, population aging trend, community elderly care facilities, equilibrium coefficient, modified two-step floating catchment area method, refined population grid, spatial inequity