地球信息科学学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (8): 1339-1350.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2021.200631

• 综述 •    下一篇

地球信息科学技术在中国减贫中的应用进展

胡姗1,2(), 葛咏1,2,*(), 刘梦晓1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-22 修回日期:2020-12-08 出版日期:2021-08-25 发布日期:2021-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 葛咏
  • 作者简介:胡 姗(1994— ),女,陕西榆林人,博士生,研究方向为基于地理大数据的贫困预测。E-mail: hus@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家杰出青年基金项目(41725006)

Application of Geo-information Science and Technology in Poverty Alleviation in China

HU Shan1,2(), GE Yong1,2,*(), LIU Mengxiao1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-10-22 Revised:2020-12-08 Online:2021-08-25 Published:2021-10-25
  • Contact: GE Yong
  • Supported by:
    The National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars(41725006)

摘要:

从救济式扶贫到精准扶贫,中国通过不断地探索和实践,走出了一条中国特色社会主义减贫道路,实现了农村贫困人口大幅减少,贫困地区面貌明显改善,脱贫攻坚取得历史性重大成就。很长时间,贫困地区的社会经济和资源环境监测都是建立在各类统计资料,统计报表,纸质档案等的基础之上,以行政单元为基础,缺乏有效、准确的空间位置信息。随着遥感和地理信息系统等地球信息科学技术的不断发展,其对空间信息高效地捕捉和计算能力,极大地提升了新时期扶贫开发工作的效率和决策支持水平。本文系统地阐述了地球信息科学在中国减贫中所发挥的作用,具体来说,主要集中在4个方面:① 多源地理空间数据在贫困地区自然资源和生态环境监测评估中的应用;② 贫困地区灾害监测,预警和管理;③ 基于地理空间数据的致贫因素分析和贫困预测;④ 依据精准扶贫工作机制建立精准扶贫决策支持系统。随着2020年中国消除绝对贫困目标的实现,地球信息科学服务于中国减贫的工作将主要集中在建立返贫监测和帮扶机制,以及向缓解发展不平衡、不充分的相对贫困转变。同时,乡村振兴作为下一步中国农村长期的工作重点,使用地球信息科学技术促进乡村基础信息化建设,促进地球信息科学服务和农业农村发展深度融合也将成为趋势。

关键词: 贫困, 减贫, 地球信息科学, 地理大数据, 资源环境监测, 时空分析

Abstract:

Through various exploration and practice of poverty alleviation, China has embarked on a path of poverty alleviation with Chinese characteristics, which has greatly reduced the number of rural poor people and significantly improved the living standard in poverty-stricken areas. For a long time, the monitoring of socioeconomic and environmental conditions in poverty-stricken areas is based on all kinds of statistical data, reports, paper files, etc., based on administrative units, lacking effective and accurate spatial location information. With the rapid development of geo-information science such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS), the real-time and efficient capture and calculation ability of spatial information greatly improves the efficiency and decision support level of poverty alleviation. This paper expounds the contributions of geo-information science on China's poverty alleviation from the following aspects:① monitoring and evaluation of natural resources and environment in poverty-stricken areas based on multi-source geospatial data; ② monitoring, early warning, and management of natural disasters in poverty-stricken areas; ③ analysis of poverty causing factors and poverty prediction; ④ decision support system for targeted poverty alleviation based on the mechanism of targeted poverty alleviation. China aims to eradicate absolute poverty in 2020, so the application of geo-information science in poverty alleviation will mainly focus on the establishment of monitoring and assistance mechanism to prevent poverty returning and alleviate the relative poverty. Moreover, under the background of rural revitalization, using geo-information science and technology to promote rural infrastructure information construction will be the focus of the next step.

Key words: poverty, poverty alleviation, geo-information science, big geodata, resources and environment monitoring, spatial-temporal analysis