地球信息科学学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (7): 1231-1245.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2021.200662

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

武汉市轨道交通站点周边地区职住平衡与建成环境的关系研究

任鹏1(), 彭建东1, 杨红1,*(), 王安琪1, 代琦2   

  1. 1.武汉大学城市设计学院,武汉 430072
    2.武汉市交通发展战略研究院,武汉 430017
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-05 修回日期:2021-01-28 出版日期:2021-07-25 发布日期:2021-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨红
  • 作者简介:任 鹏(1995— ),男,湖北赤壁人,硕士生,主要从事城市交通与土地利用研究、城市可持续发展研究。E-mail: renpeng@whu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71871027)

Relationship between Jobs-housing Balance and Built Environment in Areas around Urban Rail Transit Stations of Wuhan

REN Peng1(), PENG Jiandong1, YANG Hong1,*(), WANG Anqi1, DAI Qi2   

  1. 1. School of Urban Design of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
    2. Wuhan Transportation Development Strategy Research Institute, Wuhan 430017, China
  • Received:2020-11-05 Revised:2021-01-28 Online:2021-07-25 Published:2021-09-25
  • Contact: YANG Hong
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(71871027)

摘要:

轨道交通的快速发展提高了通勤可达性,也被认为在重构城市职住空间格局进而影响职住关系方面产生重大影响。探究城市轨道交通站点周边地区(下称轨交站点周边地区)就地职住平衡与建成环境的关系,对于通过建成环境设计促进站点尺度职住“微平衡”,调节由于轨道交通所导致的区域性职住分离意义重大。本文基于武汉市189个轨交站点刷卡数据,首先识别了轨道交通通勤人员并分析了其出行特征,进而利用逐步回归与地理加权回归模型(GWR)探究武汉市轨交站点周边地区职住平衡与建成环境的关系。结果表明:① 从整体看,武汉市向心通勤显著,且汉口片区与武昌片区之间产生较大规模的跨江通勤,跨江交通压力较大;主城区职住平衡指数优于城市近郊区,就业集聚程度呈现“中心-外围”递减趋势,居住空间围绕二环线在外围城区分布,城市整体形成“中心就业,外围居住”的职住分离格局;② 土地利用混合度、公交站点数量对轨交站点周边地区职住平衡有正向促进作用,轨交站点出入口数量则有负向作用,且各因素的影响具有明显的空间异质性;③ 非首末站的职住状况较首末站更好,而是否为换乘站则差异不大。本研究可为轨交站点周边地区就地职住平衡的形成提供参考,促进轨道交通与城市功能协调发展。

关键词: 城市轨道交通, 职住平衡, 建成环境, 通勤, 出行链, 逐步回归, 地理加权回归, 武汉市

Abstract:

The rapid development of Urban Rail Transit (URT) has improved commuting accessibility. It is also considered to have a significant impact on the reconstruction of the urban jobs-housing spatial pattern and thus affecting the jobs-housing relationship. Exploring the relationship between on-site jobs-housing balance and built environment in the surrounding areas of URT stations contributes to promoting the "micro-balance" of jobs-housing in multiple areas and adjusting the regional separation of jobs-housing caused by rail transit. This article takes 189 rail stations in Wuhan as an example. Rail transit commuters were identified by constructing trip chain of each passenger based on data from the Automatic Fare Collection system (AFC) on weekdays. On this basis, we described the commuting characteristics of residents in Wuhan. Additionally, we used multiple stepwise regression model to select significant variables of built environment that affect jobs-housing balance. We further used Geographically Weighted Regression model (GWR) to explore the spatial heterogeneity of influence. The results are as follows: (1) From an overall perspective, centripetal commuting pattern is obvious at the municipal level. Due to the unique urban pattern of the two rivers and three towns, large-scale commuting across the river occurs between Hankou and Wuchang. Thus the river-crossing traffic is under pressure. The degree of jobs-housing balance in main city is better than that in the peripheral areas. The degree of employment agglomeration gradually decreases from the core areas to the peripheral areas. The living space is distributed around the second ring in the peripheral city. The city forms a separation pattern of "central employment - peripheral residence". (2) The result of multiple stepwise regression model showed that three of the variables have significant impacts while variables like the number of road intersections, parking service level, POI density, and other factors were statistically irrelevant to jobs-housing balance. Specifically speaking, land use mixing degree and the number of bus stops have a positive effect on the jobs-housing balance in the surrounding area of URT stations, while the number of exits of URT stations has a negative effect. Meanwhile, the influence of factors has obvious spatial heterogeneity. (3) The jobs-housing balance of non-initial stations is better than that of initial stations. Whether it is a transfer station or not, there is little difference in its jobs-housing balance. This study can provide references for the construction of "jobs-housing" balance of stations on the spot and promoting the coordinated development of rail transit and urban functions through compact space layout and intensive use of land.

Key words: urban rail transit, jobs-housing balance, built environment, commute, trip chain, stepwise regression, geographically weighted regression, Wuhan