地球信息科学学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (7): 1286-1295.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2021.210075

• 遥感科学与应用技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河源区放牧家畜数量及空间分布无人机遥感调查

刘树超1,2(), 邵全琴1,3,*(), 杨帆1,2, 郭兴健1,2, 王东亮1, 黄海波1, 汪阳春4, 刘纪远1, 樊江文1, 李愈哲1   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3.海南大学公共管理学院,海口 570228
    4.中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所,成都 610041
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-11 修回日期:2021-05-25 出版日期:2021-07-25 发布日期:2021-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 邵全琴
  • 作者简介:刘树超(1992— ),男,山东泰安人,博士生,研究方向为GIS应用与生态信息。E-mail: liusc.19b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42071289);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)项目(XDA23100203);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0506501)

Using UAVs Remote Sensing for Population and Distribution of Grazing Livestock in the Source Region of the Yellow River

LIU Shuchao1,2(), SHAO Quanqin1,3,*(), YANG Fan1,2, GUO Xingjian1,2, WANG Dongliang1, HUANG Haibo1, WANG Yangchun4, LIU Jiyuan1, FAN Jiangwen1, LI Yuzhe1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. School of Public Administration, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
    4. Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
  • Received:2021-02-11 Revised:2021-05-25 Online:2021-07-25 Published:2021-09-25
  • Contact: SHAO Quanqin
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation Program of China(42071289);Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA23100203);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFC0506501)

摘要:

黄河源区拥有独特的生态系统和生物资源,是我国重要的江河水源涵养地和重要的生态屏障。近年来,放牧家畜数量的增加使该地区传统草地畜牧业面临过度放牧、草地退化、季节性失衡等发展难题。为科学掌握黄河源区放牧家畜的情况,本文以黄河源区的玛多县为研究区,应用无人机对玛多县放牧家畜(牦牛、藏羊和马)的数量和空间分布开展航拍调查。根据牦牛、藏羊和马的无人机图像解译标志库进行目视解译,采用5种方法估算玛多县放牧家畜的数量,利用选择指数分析家畜空间位置与环境因子的关系,结果表明:① 在冷季无人机航拍样带内,牦牛、藏羊和马的样带密度分别为4.12、7.34和0.06 只/km2。② 玛多县有牦牛7.08万头,藏羊10.22万只,马0.12万匹,经验证,估算牦牛、藏羊和马数量的误差分别为-0.93%、2.27%和-13.23%。③ 家畜对环境因子的选择倾向于坡度小于12°,草地覆盖度高于0.6,距居民点小于1 km,距水源小于 3 km,距公路大于3 km的区域。研究结果表明,无人机遥感技术在畜牧业方面有较大的应用潜力,为研究牧区放牧家畜的特征和草畜平衡情况提供新的思路。

关键词: 黄河源区, 无人机遥感, 家畜, 数量, 分布规律

Abstract:

The source region of the Yellow River has a unique ecosystem and biological resources, which is an important water conservation area and ecological barrier in China. In recent years, the traditional husbandry in this area faces the development problems of overgrazing, grassland degradation, seasonal imbalance by the increase in the population of grazing livestock. It is important to scientifically grasp the situation of grazing livestock, we used UAVs to investigate the population and distribution of grazing livestock (yaks, Tibetan sheep and horses) in Maduo County. According to the library of UAV image interpretation of yaks, Tibetan sheep and horses, visual interpretation was carried out. Five methods were used to estimate the population of grazing livestock in Maduo County, and the relationship between distribution of livestock and environmental factors was analyzed by selection index. The results showed that: (1) Yaks, Tibetan sheep and horses were found in 9 of 14 UAV flight strips in April 2017, and the grazing livestock were all located in the cold season grassland. A total of 1351 yaks, 2405 Tibetan sheep and 19 horses were found. In the cold season, the densities of yaks, Tibetan sheep and horses were 4.12, 7.34 and 0.06 per km2, respectively. (2) According to the estimation method of five kinds of livestock, it is the most accurate to estimate the livestock quantity in Maduo County based on the grassland in cold and warm seasons. In 2017, there were 70 800 yaks, 102 200 Tibetan sheep and 12 000 horses, and the error of estimating the population of yaks, Tibetan sheep and horses were -0.93%, 2.27% and -13.23% respectively. (3) The environmental factors of the three livestock, which tended to slope was less than 12°, the grassland coverage was more than 0.6, the distance from residential area was less than 1 km, the water source was less than 3km, the road is more than 3 km. Yaks and Tibetan sheep were mainly group activities, and horses usually were not large clusters. UAVs remote sensing has great potential in animal husbandry, and provides new ideas for studying the characteristics and balance of grazing livestock in pastoral areas

Key words: Yellow River source area, UAV remote sensing, livestock, population, distribution patterns