地球信息科学学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (6): 1204-1217.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2022.210718

• 遥感科学与应用技术 • 上一篇    

内蒙古自治区人居环境综合适宜性评价及空间优化

冯琰玮(), 甄江红*()   

  1. 内蒙古师范大学地理科学学院,呼和浩特 010022
  • 收稿日期:2021-11-10 修回日期:2021-12-11 出版日期:2022-06-25 发布日期:2022-08-25
  • 通讯作者: *甄江红(1970— ),女,内蒙古包头人,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为城市与区域发展。
    E-mail: zhenjianghong@sina.com
  • 作者简介:冯琰玮(1994— ),男,山西大同人,博士生,研究方向为城市与区域发展。E-mail: fengyanwei123@icloud.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41761032);国家自然科学基金项目(41261109);内蒙古自然科学基金项目(2016MS0410);内蒙古自然科学基金项目(2020MS04003)

Comprehensive Suitability Evaluation and Spatial Optimization of Human Settlements Environment in Inner Mongolia

FENG Yanwei(), ZHEN Jianghong*()   

  1. College of Geographical Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022, China
  • Received:2021-11-10 Revised:2021-12-11 Online:2022-06-25 Published:2022-08-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41761032);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41261109);Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia(2016MS0410);Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia(2020MS04003)

摘要:

科学评价区域人居环境适宜性,是开展国土空间开发适宜性评价的前提,对提高区域资源环境承载能力,促进人与自然和谐发展至关重要。本文以内蒙古自治区为案例,基于栅格尺度从自然与人文2个方面对人居环境适宜性进行评价;将适宜性因子作为城乡建设用地扩展的限制条件,采用MCR模型对城乡建设用地进行模拟,提出区域人居环境空间优化方案,主要结论有:水文与气候条件对内蒙古自治区人居环境的整体限制作用较强;内蒙古自治区人居环境临界适宜与不适宜区占比最高,达到52.8%;高度适宜区占比最低为9%,主要分布在前套平原及西辽河平原,全区人居环境适宜性水平整体偏低。内蒙古自治区城乡建设用地人居环境比较适宜与高度适宜区占绝对优势,适宜比例超过73%,从适宜性空间分布来看,南部整体优于北部,东部整体优于西部,地带性特征明显。内蒙古自治区城乡人居环境不适宜与临界适宜主要表现为自然条件不适宜及对自然保护区的不合理占用。内蒙古自治区城乡建设用地模拟结果显示远期呼包地区一体化连片趋势明显,内蒙古自治区可逐步形成以呼包鄂都市区、赤通都市区为主体,以文化特色鲜明、公共设施完善的中心城镇及中心乡村为依托,以人居环境不适宜区为间隔,城乡融合的人居环境空间格局。

关键词: 人居环境, 国土空间, 综合适宜性, MCR模型, 建设用地模拟, 空间优化, 城乡融合, 内蒙古自治区

Abstract:

Currently, urbanization is not synchronized with the development of urban and rural living environment under the background of rapid economic development. The urban and rural environmental construction generally pays much attention to the production space rather than the living space. The area and quality of urban and rural living space cannot adapt to the development of economy and society. Therefore, scientific evaluation of the suitability of human settlements environment is the premise of land sustainable development, which is significant to improve the carrying capacity of environment and promote the harmonious development between human beings and nature. Taking Inner Mongolia autonomous region as an example, this paper evaluates the suitability of human settlements environment from both natural and human aspects based on conditional rule integration method, then takes the suitability as the limiting factor of urban and rural construction and expansion. The Minimal Cumulative Resistance (MCR) model is used to simulate the urban and rural construction land, and the spatial optimization scheme of regional human settlements is proposed. There are four major findings reported as follows. Firstly, the hydrological and climatic conditions have a strong restrictive effect on human settlements in the study area. Secondly, the proportion of critically suitable and unsuitable areas is the highest, and the proportion of highly suitable area is the lowest. Moreover, the proportion of relatively suitable and highly suitable areas of urban and rural construction land is large. From the spatial domain, the suitability of the south is better than that of the north, and the east is better than the west. Overall speaking, the unsuitable and critically suitable areas of human settlements environment are mainly caused by the unsuitable natural conditions and unreasonable occupation of nature reserves. Third, the simulation result of urban and rural construction land shows that the long-term integration trend of Hohhot-Baotou area is obvious. It can gradually form a spatial pattern of urban rural integration with Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos metropolitan area and Chifeng-Tongliao metropolitan area as the main body, central towns and villages with distinctive cultural characteristics and perfect public facilities as the support, and unsuitable residential areas as the separation. Based on the empirical study of human settlements environment in typical areas, we can not only provide suggestions for the construction of human settlements in our study area, but also provide experience and reference for other similar areas.

Key words: human settlements environment, land space, comprehensive suitability, MCR model, construction land simulation, spatial optimization, urban-rural integration, Inner Mongolia