地球信息科学学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (4): 673-683.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2022.210761

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于大数据的化工企业时空变化特征及其对水域的潜在影响分析方法

王紫薇1,2(), 蔡红艳1,2,*(), 陈慕琳1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学 资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2021-11-28 修回日期:2021-12-15 出版日期:2022-04-25 发布日期:2022-06-25
  • 通讯作者: *蔡红艳(1983— ),女,黑龙江五常人,博士,副研究员,主要从事生态环境遥感研究。E-mail: caihy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:王紫薇(1997— ),女,山东济南人,博士生,主要从事地理信息系统技术与应用研究。E-mail: wangzw.19s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1800103)

A Method of Spatio-temporal Characteristics Analysis of Chemical Enterprises Using Big Data and Their Potential Impacts on Waterbodies

WANG Ziwei1,2(), CAI Hongyan1,2,*(), CHEN Mulin1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, College of Resources and Environment, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2021-11-28 Revised:2021-12-15 Online:2022-04-25 Published:2022-06-25
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2018YFC1800103)

摘要:

区域水环境影响评估是指导产业布局与结构优化、防范和降低环境风险的重要步骤。基于互联网爬取的企业数据,探究了江苏省1990—2020年化工类企业的时空分布特征,同时引入区域生长法模拟化工企业的潜在影响区,即考虑企业周边地形梯度差异所模拟的影响范围,最后分析了企业对周边水域的潜在影响并提出了相应的防控建议。结果表明:① 1990—2020年,江苏省化工类企业数量呈现出先快速增加而后缓慢增加再缓慢减少的变化趋势,空间上呈现“南多北少,亲水型”的分布特征;② 企业对周边水域和水源地保护区均产生一定威胁,在2020年,江苏省超过20%的水域位于化工企业3 km范围内,接近6%的水域位于企业潜在影响区域内。此外,超过200个(5%)化工类企业位于116个水源地保护区内;③ 通过梳理文献及报道资料,发现水污染事件分布与本文所识别的重点河流(孟津河、大浦港、灌河及夹江等)具有较好的一致性,说明了识别结果的可靠性。本文从化工企业的互联网数据挖掘出发,结合企业潜在影响区的模拟,能够有效识别水域影响重点区域/河段,相关研究方法可为全国化工类企业的水域影响评估提供支撑。

关键词: 化工企业, 区域生长法, 互联网数据, 水环境, 潜在影响区域, 时空分布, 江苏省, 重点河流

Abstract:

Chemical enterprises usually pose a threat to waterbodies due to the discharge of industrial wastewater. Assessing negative impacts of chemical enterprises on waterbodies is therefore significant to regional environment management. Thereby, a waterbody affected assessment method using the Internet big data and the regional growth method was proposed in this paper. Taking Jiangsu Province as a study case, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of chemical enterprises, which obtained by the Internet data mining technology, were analyzed. Then, the potential impacted areas by the enterprises were simulated using the regional growth method, and on this basis, potential impacts of the enterprises on surrounding waterbody were analyzed. The results revealed that: (1) the number of the chemical enterprises in Jiangsu Province experienced the trend of "rapidly increasing, slowly increasing and then slowly decreasing" due to the policies changes from 1990 to 2020. In terms of spatial distribution, more chemical enterprises were distributed in the south than in the north of Jiangsu Province. The distribution of enterprises in the south shaped as some large-scale contiguous clusters, mainly in Wuxi and Changzhou, while shaped as some small spots-like areas in the north. (2) The waterbody and water source protection areas of Jiangsu Province have been potentially threatened by the chemical enterprises to some extent. In 2020, more than one-fifth of the waterbody in Jiangsu Province was distributed within the 3 km buffer zones of the enterprises. Nearly 6% of the waterbody was located in the potential impact area by the enterprises. Besides, there were more than 200 (5%) chemical enterprises in 116 water source protection zones. (3) About 65% of chemical enterprises were located within the 10km buffer zones of the rivers, suggested that the chemical enterprises tend to be built near to the rivers. Furthermore, the enterprises were concentrated in the 10km buffer zone of the Yangtze River mostly. During 1990 to 2020, the new enterprises mainly gathered in the Yangtze River, with the number of the enterprises increasing from 15.6% to 18.7%. The dense distribution thereby resulted in frequent water pollution incidents occurring around the Yangtze River. In addition, Mengjin River, Dapu Port, Dapu Port, Guanhe River, and some tributaries of the Yangtze River (Jiajiang River, etc.) were affected by surrounding chemical enterprises heavily, which were also illustrated by previous literature and reports. Therefore, we suggest that the layout of monitoring sites and water quality monitoring around these rivers should be strengthened. Starting from the Internet data mining of chemical enterprises, combined with the simulation of potential impact areas of enterprises, this paper can effectively identify the key areas or river sections of waterbodies that are affected. Moreover, the proposed method of waterbody pollution impact assessment provides a methodological support for assessing negative impact of chemical enterprises on waterbody at national wide, which is of great significance to the comprehensive treatment of water pollution and ecological environment protection.

Key words: chemical enterprises, regional growth method, Internet data, water environment, potential pollution area, temporal and spatial distribution, Jiangsu, key river