地球信息科学学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (2): 151-156.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2011.00151

• 地球信息综合分析 •    下一篇

矿区地面沉降预计方法与应用前景分析

常占强1,2, 宫辉力1,2   

  1. 1. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院,北京 100048;
    2. 三维信息获取与应用教育部重点实验室,北京 100048
  • 收稿日期:2010-09-30 修回日期:2011-03-23 出版日期:2011-04-25 发布日期:2011-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 常占强(1964-),男,河北人,博士,副教授。主要从事3S技术与地面沉降监测研究。 E-mail:changkkll@tom.com E-mail:changkkll@tom.com
  • 基金资助:

    北京自然科学基金项目(8093032);北京市教委科技研究计划项目(KM200910028016)。

Analysis and Prospect on the Prediction Methods of Ground Subsidence in Mining Area

CHANG Zhanqiang1,2, GONG Huili1,2   

  1. 1. College of Resource, Environment &Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China;
    2. Key Lab of 3D Information Acquisition and Application, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2010-09-30 Revised:2011-03-23 Online:2011-04-25 Published:2011-04-25

摘要: 地下矿产资源开采引起的地面沉降是世界上各矿产资源大国共同面临的一种严重环境问题,我国也不例外。随着世界范围内矿产资源消耗量的急剧增长,这种问题将日益突出。为了尽可能减轻由地下矿产开采引起的地面沉降,对地面基础设施的损害与自然环境的破坏,对地面沉降进行精确预计显得尤为重要。本文首先对国内外地下矿产开采引起的地面沉降主要预计方法的特点及适应性,进行了系统地分析与总结。在此基础上,作者依据各自的适应性,将地面沉降预计方法分为两大类:(1)对地面沉降空间分布规律的预计;(2)对地面沉降时间变化规律的预计。进而,提出了未来地面沉降预计中切实可行的研究方法与内容,主要包括:(1)对具体地质采矿条件下地面沉降规律的预计研究;(2)对地面沉降预计的时空统一问题的研究;(3)地面沉降预计与实地监测的一体化的研究。最后,作者分析了地下矿产开采引起的地面沉降预计前景。

关键词: 地下开采, 矿产资源, 地面沉降预计, 空间对地观测技术

Abstract: The ground surface subsidence due to underground mining of mineral resources is a kind of serious environmental issues over the world, which all the countries with abundant mineral resources are currently confronted with. China is not an exception. With the sharp increasing in mineral resources consumption, this issue will inevitably become more and more severe in the future. In order to greatly reduce the damages induced by ground surface subsidence to the infrastructures and natural environment, it is very important to predict the ground surface subsidence precisely. In the present paper, the authors, first of all, made a systematic and comprehensive analysis on the characteristics and applicability of the major ground subsidence prediction methods currently used at home and abroad. Then, according to their applicability, the authors suggested that the major ground subsidence prediction methods should be divided in to two categories:(1) the prediction methods on spatial domain distribution; (2) the prediction methods on the temporal domain variation. In addition, several feasible and significant directions in the investigation of the ground subsidence prediction were put forward, including (1) on the ground prediction under the concrete circumstances of geology and mining; (2) on the unification problem for the spatial distribution and the temporal variation in the prediction of the ground surface subsidence; and (3) on the integration problem of ground temporal subsidence prediction and field monitoring. Finally, the authors conducted the prospect on the prediction of ground surface subsidence, in which the cooperation and supplement between the prediction methods of ground surface subsidence and the advanced modern space Earth observation monitoring techniques, such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Global Positioning System were emphasized and expected to substantially improve the prediction accuracy of ground surface subsidence and utmost reduce the damages induced by underground mining of mineral resources. Along with the continuously increasing demands for mineral resources, the investigation on ground surface subsidence prediction is expected to play a more important role in the protection of ground surface facilities and natural environments in the future.

Key words: underground mining, mineral resources, ground surface subsidence prediction, earth observation technology