地球信息科学学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (2): 213-218.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2011.00213

• 地理信息系统设计与分析 • 上一篇    下一篇

成都地基的GPS水汽监测系统建设与应用

王皓1, 李国平1   

  1. 1. 南京信息工程大学大气物理学院,南京 210044;
    2. 成都信息工程学院大气科学学院和高原大气与环境四川省重点实验室,成都 610225
  • 收稿日期:2010-09-28 修回日期:2011-02-28 出版日期:2011-04-25 发布日期:2011-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 王皓(1984-), 男, 四川成都人, 博士研究生, 主要从事GPS气象学研究。Email: wanghao911@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国气象局气象关键技术集成与应用项目(CMAGJ2011M46);中国气象局成都区域气象中心区域重大科研业务项目(2010-3,2010-5); 成都信息工程学院科研基金项目(KYTZ201034)资助。

Construction and Application about the Monitoring System of Water Vapor Derived from Ground-based GPS in Chengdu

WANG Hao1, LI Guoping1   

  1. 1. School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China;
    2. College of Atmospheric Sciences, Chengdu University of Information Technology and the Key Laboratory of Plateau Atmosphere & Environment of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610225, China
  • Received:2010-09-28 Revised:2011-02-28 Online:2011-04-25 Published:2011-04-25

摘要: 水汽尽管在大气中的含量很少, 但是其在大气中的变化却十分剧烈。其空间分布极不均匀,时间变化也极其迅速。它不仅是天气、气候变化的主要驱动力,也是灾害性天气形成和演变中的重要因子。鉴于水汽信息在数值模式、气候监测、人工影响天气、空中水资源开发等一系列业务领域中的重要性,建立局地或者区域的GPS监测系统已成为目前迫切需要解决的问题。GPS水汽监测系统由数据服务器、解算服务器及应用服务器3部分组成。首先,其通过数据服务器接收来自GPS卫星所发射的信号,生成相应解算软件所能识别的RENEX格式文件,以及获取自动气象站所测得的温、压、湿等相关气象数据,并将得到的数据保存并传送出去;然后,编写相关解算程序使得解算服务器能定时解算大气延迟量,进而反演出可降水量PWV;最后,利用应用服务器完成与气象应用相关产品的生成和服务任务,从而实现该系统的一体化功能。该系统能定制半小时 一次的解算任务,能较准确反映该时段该区域水汽快速变化的特性。建设该系统的最终目的是希望它能填补GPS反演水汽技术在四川乃至西南地区应用的空白,增强气象部门对中小尺度灾害性天气的预报监测能力,并促进许多与之相关的气象业务化工作的开展。

关键词: 水汽, GPS, 可降水量, 监测系统

Abstract: Water vapor plays a very important role in weather and climate changes. Though water vapor is very little in the atmosphere, but its change, in the atmosphere, is very obvious. Water vapor is also an important kind of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere whose spatial distribution is extremely uneven and time variation is very fast. It is not only the main driving force of weather and climate changes, but also an important formation and evolution reason for disastrous weather, especially medium or small scale disastrous weather. In satellite geodesy, GPS positioning accuracy was primarily affected by water vapor. Therefore, people learn from the elimination of noise in the measurement process, gradually to develop out of a new discipline—GPS meteorology (GPS/MET). Along with the development of GPS meteorology, people start to utilize ground-based GPS technology in order to effectively compensate for the defects of traditional detection technologies spatially and temporally and obtain water vapor information with high-precision, high-capacity and high space-time resolution ratio through ground-based GPS water vapor monitoring network. How to measure water vapor content in the atmosphere, to monitor the distribution of water vapor and its trends, which have an important practical significance to meteorological department, especially in monitoring and forecasting disastrous weather on a medium or small scale. The main content of this paper is to launch the development of ground-based GPS water vapor monitoring system; the purpose is to make this system fill in the blank of the application of GPS inversion water vapor technology in Sichuan and even the southwest areas of China, and also enhance the capacities of meteorological department on forecasting and monitoring of medium or small scale disastrous weather, as well as promote the work of many related meteorological operations.

Key words: water vapor, GPS, perceptible water vapor, monitoring system