地球信息科学学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (6): 797-803.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2011.00797

• 地球信息综合分析 • 上一篇    下一篇

人工堤坝影响下的黄河三角洲海岸带生态特征分析

傅新1,2, 刘高焕1, 黄翀1, 刘庆生1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-27 修回日期:2011-10-12 出版日期:2011-12-25 发布日期:2011-12-25
  • 作者简介:傅新(1984-),女,博士研究生,主要研究方向:生态遥感与景观模拟.E-mail:fux@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所野外台站开放基金和国家自然科学基金项目(41023010,40901223)资助.

Analysis of Ecological Characteristics of Coastal Zone in Yellow River Delta under Dam Disturbance

FU Xin1,2, LIU Gaohuan1, HUANG Chong1, LIU Qingsheng1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2011-07-27 Revised:2011-10-12 Online:2011-12-25 Published:2011-12-25

摘要: 在滨海地区,堤坝干扰对自然植被景观及土壤属性的梯度变化规律有重要的影响.本文采用统计分析和梯度分析的方法,在RS信息提取和GIS空间分析技术的支持下,从植被群落的变化入手,从样地尺度上研究堤坝对黄河三角洲海岸带土壤环境的影响并揭示堤坝干扰下,土壤属性的梯度变化规律.研究表明:(1)堤坝影响海岸带地区自然植被的盖度,并且堤坝干扰在一定程度上加速了黄河三角洲海岸带地区自然植被群落的正向演替.(2)有堤区的全氮、速效钾和全盐在距海远近梯度上的变化趋势受堤坝干扰的影响较大,并且堤坝所在区域的位置和建堤时间都将对土壤属性的影响程度造成差异.(3)堤坝干扰下全氮呈线性递增,速效钾和全盐均呈线性递减,且北部的变化率高于南部.随着堤坝建成时间的增长,三者的梯度变化趋势趋于缓慢,变化率降低,堤坝建成约25年后,全氮的线性递增率为0.003,其变化趋势几乎达到稳定.这进一步解释了有堤区在距海远近梯度上自然植被景观异质的原因,也对黄河三角洲大开发背景下,湿地景观的恢复和保护具有一定的指导意义.

关键词: 梯度分析, 黄河三角洲海岸带, 堤坝干扰, 自然植被, 土壤属性

Abstract: In the coastal zone of Yellow River Delta, artificial dams,which were built as a protection against the sea, have important influence on the natural vegetation landscape and the gradient changes of soil properties. In this paper,we aim to research the influence of artificial dams on ecological characteristics of the study area with the support of remote sensing and GIS technology. First, we designed the field investigation program, then extracted coastline and artificial dams from remote sensing images, and finally researched changes of vegetation communities with distance from coastline, the influence of artificial dams on soil environment and the gradient patterns of soil properties under dam disturbance by statistical analysis and gradient analysis. We found that: (i) dam disturbance affected natural vegetation cover and accelerated the forward succession of natural vegetation communities in the coastal zone of Yellow River Delta; (ii) In the area with dams, the trends of the total nitrogen, available phosphorus and total salt in the distance gradient from the coastline were more influenced by dam disturbance. The dams built in different regions and at different times have different influences on soil properties; And (iii) total nitrogen was a linear increasing, but available phosphorus and total salt all showed a linear decrease. The change rates of these three factors in the north were higher than those in the south. After the dam built, the longer the time,the slower the trends of the gradient of this three factors. And the rates of change were lower with the growth over time. About 25 years after the dam built, the change rate was 0.003, and the trend of total nitrogen was almost stable. The results further explained the reasons of natural vegetation landscape heterogeneity on the distance gradient from the coastline. It also has some instructive significance for the restoration and protection of wetland landscape under the context of the development of Yellow River Delta.

Key words: dam disturbance, natural vegetation, soil property, gradient analysis, coastal zone of Yellow River Delta