地球信息科学学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (3): 327-337.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2012.00327

• 地理信息系统平台开发与分析应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

鄱阳湖地区土地覆盖空间分布格局与景观特征分析

冉盈盈1, 王卷乐2, 张永杰1, 李玉洁1, 周玉洁1   

  1. 1. 中国矿业大学(北京) 地球科学与测绘工程学院,北京 100083;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2012-03-01 修回日期:2012-05-25 出版日期:2012-06-25 发布日期:2012-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 王卷乐(1976-),男,博士,副研究员,研究方向:资源环境空间数据管理、GIS与遥感应用。 E-mail: wangjl@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:wangjl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:冉盈盈(1986-),女,硕士生,研究方向:遥感技术与应用、土地覆盖。E-mail:wsranyingying@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    环保公益行业科研专项项目"面向我国环境管理的环境变化信息集成与服务系统"(201109075);国家科技基础性工作专项项目"格网化资源环境综合科学调查规范"(2011FY110400)。

Quantitative Analysis on Spatial Distribution of Land Cover Pattern and Landscape Features in Poyang Lake Region

RAN Yingying1, WANG Juanle2, ZHANG Yongjie1, LI Yujie1, ZHOU Yujie1   

  1. 1. College of Geoscience and Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China;
    2. State Key Lab of Resources and Environment Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2012-03-01 Revised:2012-05-25 Online:2012-06-25 Published:2012-06-25

摘要:

鄱阳湖是我国第一大淡水湖,具有洪水调蓄、水源涵养等重要生态服务功能。掌握鄱阳湖地区土地覆盖的空间分布格局和规律,对于评价其环境保护和生态服务功能具有重要作用。本文利用环境卫星影像、2005年鄱阳湖地区土地覆盖数据,经遥感解译分析获取了鄱阳湖地区2010年土地覆盖现状数据及其空间分布格局图。研究表明:(1)采用2010年的环境星影像结合2005年土地覆盖数据,人工目视解译得到的2010年土地覆盖数据的精度为80.4%。(2)景观生态学、GIS及统计学的思想和方法可以为土地覆盖空间特征的定量分析提供技术支持。文中采用的斑块面积指数、斑块形状指数、不同土地覆盖类型的邻接指数,从不同角度反映了鄱阳湖地区土地覆盖的空间分布格局及景观特征。(3)景观指数能定量说明土地覆盖景观的形状、大小、数量和空间组合,能反映景观的生态环境特点、人类活动及社会经济状况。面积特征指数显示研究区农村聚落的离散度及破碎度最高;斑块形状指数反映出研究区水体形状趋于规则化,其受到人类的"围湖造田,围湖造地"及防洪工程建设的干扰。(4)不同土地覆盖类型的邻接指数能定量说明相邻类型在物质交换、结构与功能的相互影响及土地资源形成机制、演替过程等。水田与常绿阔叶林的邻接关系反映了人类"毁林开荒"活动对林地与水田演替关系的影响;水田与农村聚落的邻接关系,表明研究区耕地保护的重点是城镇及农村周边耕地的保护;城镇建设用地的邻接关系表明了人类生活所需的生活条件,为"移民建镇"工程提供了科学依据。分析认为:鄱阳湖地区是以耕地为主的农业区,并且有丰富的水资源及森林资源,但今后要重视农村土地的集约化利用、水资源保护、耕地资源保护和自然资源的合理开发利用。

关键词: 景观分析, 分布格局, 土地覆盖, 鄱阳湖地区

Abstract:

Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China. It plays an important role on ecosystem services, such as flood regulation and storage, water conservation, etc. It is important for the evaluation of its environmental protection and ecosystem services to grasp the spatial pattern and laws of land cover distribution in the Poyang Lake region. Based on HJ images and Poyang Lake land cover data in 2005, this paper obtained the Poyang Lake region land cover data in 2010 by using GIS, RS technology and quantitatively analyzed the land cover spatial distribution pattern of the Poyang Lake region in 2010. The results show that: (1) Base on HJ images and the existing land cover data, the regional land cover data can be updated dynamically. Using the HJ images in 2010 with the 2005 land cover data, the 2010 land cover data was obtained by artificial visual interpretation. Verified by the measured GPS points, the accuracy of the land cover data is 80.4%; (2) Landscape ecology, GIS and statistical ideas and methods can support quantitative analysis on land cover spatial characteristics. The indices used in the patch area, patch shape index, adjacency index of different land cover types reflect the land cover spatial characteristics of the Poyang Lake region in different aspects; (3) Landscape indices can quantitatively explain the shape, size, number and space combination of the land cover and can reflect the characteristics of the ecological environment and the status of human activities and socio-economy. The area indices has showed that the rural settlement have the highest degree of fragmentation and dispersion. Shape indices have reflected the shape of the water body tend towards the regularization owing to the conversion from lake to land and the flood control projects; And (4) the adjacency indices of land cover types have quantitatively descripted the material exchange, interaction of the adjacent land cover types and have reflected the formation mechanism and succession process of land resources. The adjacent relationship of paddy fields and evergreen broadleaf forests have reflected that the deforestation has influenced the succession of forest land and paddy field. The adjacency relationship of paddy fields and rural settlements has recommend that farmland protection and monitoring should be focused on farmland surrounding the towns and rural areas. The adjacency indices of urban construction have provided a scientific basis for the construction of the towns. Analyses have showed that Poyang Lake is an arable land-based agricultural area, which has abundant water resources and forests, therefore, we should pay high attention to intensification of rural land use, water conservation, farmland protection, and the rational development and utilization of natural resources.

Key words: Poyang Lake region, status pattern, land cover, landscape analysis