地球信息科学学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (4): 538-545.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2013.00538

• 地理信息系统开发技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

面向任务的移动灾情快速采集直报技术与应用

廖永丰1,2, 李博1,2, 雷宇1, 林志强1   

  1. 1. 民政部国家减灾中心/卫星减灾应用中心, 北京 100124;
    2. 民政部灾害评估与风险防范重点实验室, 北京 100124
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-29 修回日期:2013-05-10 出版日期:2013-08-08 发布日期:2013-08-08
  • 通讯作者: 廖永丰,E-mail:liaoyongfeng@ndrcc.gov.cn E-mail:liaoyongfeng@ndrcc.gov.cn
  • 作者简介:廖永丰(1974- ),男,理学博士,副研究员,甘肃省陇南人,主要从事灾害评估、灾害风险管理方向的研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家“863”计划项目“应急减灾特种导航终端技术与示范”(2009AA12Z325);国家海洋公益性行业科研专项“海洋灾情快速评估和综合研判系统研发与应用示范”(201305020)。

A Task Oriented Method for Mobile Collection and Rapid Report of Disaster Information and Its Application

LIAO Yongfeng1,2, LI Bo1,2, LEI Yu1, LIN Zhiqiang1   

  1. 1. National Disaster Reduction Center of China Satellite Application Center for Disaster Reduction of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing 100124, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Integrated Disaster Assessment and Risk Governance of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing 100124, China
  • Received:2013-01-29 Revised:2013-05-10 Online:2013-08-08 Published:2013-08-08

摘要:

文针对我国目前灾情直报、灾情核查评估、灾害应急响应、遥感影像地面解译等重大灾害现场应急工作需求,提出了一种面向任务的移动灾情快速采集直报技术,并以这种技术的业务化应用为目标,详细阐述了自然灾害移动信息平台的整体建设方案。该技术以现场灾情采集工作图层为载体,以现场工作任务规划为核心,系统解决了现场灾情采集工作中多元灾情信息的一体化采集、快速集成、即时上报、实时监控、团队协作等技术难题。相对于目前广泛采用的“卫星定位+底图标绘+移动通信”技术模式,该技术具有4个方面的优势:灵活兼容任何现场灾情信息采集任务;避免了卫星导航系统定位精度不高导致的大量后期数据处理工作;实现了多元灾情信息的一体化采集与快速上报;能够支持多个现场小组协同工作。该技术开发的自然灾害移动信息平台,由终端子系统、后方服务子系统和支撑数据库组成,能够依托智能移动终端设备提供现场多元灾情数据的一体化采集、快速上报、实时在线集成、快速共享等功能。该技术应用于青海玉树地震结古镇倒房评估,现场评估工作组利用4台移动终端在3天内完成了685个斑块房屋倒损程度、房屋间数、单位造价、户数及人口等灾情指标的调查统计,采集的数据可直接用于数据分析,辅助决策支持。

关键词: 面向任务, 玉树地震, 灾情, 灾情报送, 移动采集

Abstract:

A task oriented method for mobile collection and direct report of disaster information is proposed to meet emergency work requirements around the disaster site, such as disaster information report, check and assessment, disaster emergency response, remote sensing image interpretation and so on. It will be an operational application and the total solution of natural disaster mobile information platform is introduced in the paper at length. The core of the method is regarded as the task planning, which depends on the layer for disaster information collection around the disaster site. It solves several problems occurred to the disaster information collection in the field, including multi-type disaster information collection, rapid integration, instant report, real time monitoring, team collaboration and so on. The combination of satellite positioning, base map plotting and mobile communication is widely used for disaster information collection. Compared with the universal method, four advantages are involved in the new method. First, it is a flexible method and suitable to collect any disaster information around the disaster site. Second, post-data-processing is avoided, which is resulted from poor accuracy of satellite positioning system. Third, multi-type information can be collected in an integrative way and reported rapidly. Finally, several teams are serviced by the platform to collect information synergistically around the disaster site. Natural disaster mobile information platform is developed based on the method, which is composed of the terminal, the background server and the database. The terminal plays an important role in the platform, by means of which the operator can collect the multi-type disaster information synthetically around the disaster site, report the disaster data rapidly, do the online data integration in real time, share relative information quickly and so on. It was applied in collapsed house assessment around Jiegu Town, Qinghai Province after the Yushu Earthquake. The whole town was divided into 685 plots according to collapsed houses. Four mobile terminals are employed by the working group in the field to investigate and collect data of damaged and collapsed houses, such as the level of damage, the number of damaged houses, the unit-price of one house, the number of families, the number of affected persons and so on. The analysis of statistics could help to assess the loss from the Yushu Earthquake.

Key words: disaster information report, disaster information, task oriented, Yushu Earthquake, disaster information mobile collection