地球信息科学学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (3): 349-357.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2014.00349

• 地球信息科学理论与方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于手绘图件的考古遗址三维建模方法

林冰仙, 周良辰, 盛业华, 闾国年   

  1. 南京师范大学虚拟地理环境教育部重点实验室, 南京210023
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-27 修回日期:2013-06-25 出版日期:2014-05-10 发布日期:2014-05-10
  • 通讯作者: 周良辰(1979- ),男,江苏南京人,博士,讲师,研究方向为虚拟地理环境与三维GIS。E-mail:zhoulch@hotmail.com E-mail:zhoulch@hotmail.com
  • 作者简介:林冰仙(1984- ),女,江苏南通人,博士,讲师,研究方向为GIS应用与虚拟地理环境。E-mail:lbx1984@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学青年基金项目(41001224、41301415);教育部博士点基金项目(20103207120014、20113207120013);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目。

3D Modeling Method of Archaeological Sites Based on Hand Drawings

LIN Bingxian, ZHOU Liangchen, SHENG Yehua, LV Guonian   

  1. Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographical Environment, Ministry of Education, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2013-05-27 Revised:2013-06-25 Online:2014-05-10 Published:2014-05-10

摘要:

考古遗址是研究古代人类活动的重要场所。重建考古遗址三维模型对于历史回溯、古环境恢复和古迹保护等考古工作均具有重要的意义。传统考古发掘过程中普遍采用的手绘图件难以实现考古现场环境的模拟与再现,也不能准确地反映出遗址中文化层与其所包含地物的空间关系。近年来,考古学家引入各类勘察新技术用于考古文化层与遗迹的三维建模,但这些方法无法应用于已完成发掘工作的遗址三维重建。针对这一问题,本文提出一种以考古发掘过程中普遍采用的手绘图件为数据源的考古遗址三维建模方法。该方法以探方为基本建模单元,将考古文化层与遗迹分开建模,利用探方分布图及探方图建立考古文化层三维模型,利用遗迹图建立考古遗迹三维模型,并以三维实体布尔运算方法,将两者无缝整合,构建完整的田野考古遗址三维模型。最后,以湖南澧县八十垱东区为研究区,验证了本文相关研究成果的有效性与实用性。实践证明,该方法能够充分利用传统考古过程中积累的大量资料,有助于将传统考古学在宏观尺度下的定性描述转化为现代“数字考古”中微观尺度的定量描述。

关键词: 三维建模, 考古遗址, 考古遗迹, 探方, 考古文化层

Abstract:

The archaeological sites are important places for the studying of ancient human activities. 3D modeling of archaeological sites could be helpful in the context of archaeological excavation unit representation and analysis, and therefore have great significance for the archaeological works such as ancient environmental restoration and historic preservation. Nevertheless, most of the archaeologists are still relying on hand drawings of the excavation units for their analysis and interpretation. These 2D representations are difficult to make an effective simulation of the archaeological site environment and cannot accurately repent the geometric and spatial relations of the cultural layers and the volumetric objects. In recent years, archaeologists have brought some new investigation technologies in 3D modeling of archaeological sites, but these methods cannot be applied to the archaeological sites in which excavation has been completed. To solve this problem, this paper presents a 3D modeling method of archaeological sites based on hand drawings. In this method, excavation unit is used as the basic modeling unit, and the cultural layers and the relics are modeled separately. Firstly, the excavation unit distribution diagrams and the excavation unit diagrams are used to establish the 3D models of archaeological cultural layers. Secondly, the relic diagrams are used to establish 3D models of archaeological relics. Thirdly, through 3D Boolean operations, these two models are integrated into complete 3D models of the archaeological sites. Finally, the 81-Dang east area, in Lixian County of Hunan Province has been chosen as the research region to verify the validity and practicality of this method. The research practice has proved that this method can make full use of the large amount of data accumulated in the traditional archaeological process, and is helpful to transform the qualitative descriptions of traditional archeology in macro scale to the quantitative description of modern digital archeology in microscopic scale.

Key words: 3DModeling, excavation units, archaeological sites, archaeological stratigraphy, archaeological relics