地球信息科学学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (5): 806-814.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2014.00806

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基于遥感信息的城市地表能量空间分布及特征研究——以国际宜居城市为例

关燕宁1(), 钱丹1,2, 张春燕1, 蔡丹路1,2, 刘旭颖1,2, 郭杉1,,A;*()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院遥感与数字地球研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 出版日期:2014-09-10 发布日期:2014-09-04
  • 通讯作者: 郭杉 E-mail:guan@irsa.ac.cn;guoshan@irsa.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:关燕宁(1963-),女,北京人,研究员,研究方向为气候变化对环境的影响。E-mail: guan@irsa.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院信息化建设项目(XXH12504-1-12)

Urban Surface Energy Distribution and Related Characteristics: An Remote Sensing Based Research Applied to the International Livable Cities

GUAN Yanning1(), QIAN Dan1,2, ZHANG Chunyan1, CAI Danlu1,2, LIU Xuying1,2, GUO Shan1,*()   

  1. 1. Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, CA S, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Online:2014-09-10 Published:2014-09-04
  • Contact: GUO Shan E-mail:guan@irsa.ac.cn;guoshan@irsa.ac.cn
  • About author:

    *The author: WANG Jiacheng, E-mail:shanqiangw@fync.edu.cn

摘要:

遥感地表能量信息能够反映城市生态系统成分、作用与影响关系。本研究从城市生态系统的角度,提取能反映城市下垫面地物实体综合特征、作用与影响关系的相对地表能量信息,针对不同区域、规模与类型城市的地表能量空间分布及特征,建立了定量化的城市相对地表能量分级与评价指标。探讨国际“宜居型城市”生态系统结构、功能、形态及其时空变化特征和规律。结果表明:(1)城市实体空间建筑群的形状、体量,街道与建筑的朝向和配置关系,以及硬质化表面开放性的差异影响城市地表能量的分布。(2)建筑物周边的植被覆盖程度、建筑物之间的空间关系、广场和街道的开放性等,是维持城市开敞空间与实体空间的混合区域地表能量平衡的基础。宜居城市中心周围的大规模低密度居住区构成以中等能量分布为主的城市地表能量缓冲与过渡区。(3)城市开敞空间的地表能量变化幅度比实体空间大,宜居城市开敞空间的中、低地表能量分布占有较高比例。(4)宜居城市实体空间的高能量斑块呈现规模较小和分布相对分散的状态。采用相对地表能量分级与评价指标,可为各类城市规划与设计提供科学依据。

关键词: 城市生态系统, 遥感, 地表能量, 实体空间与开敞空间, 评价指标

Abstract:

Variations in characteristics of urban surface energy are known to represent the urban ecosystem through relationships between its composition, function and feedback that influence the surface energy balance and lead to distinct urban energy distribution. To quantify the distinct urban energy distribution and furthermore to establish a standard ecosystem assessment indicator, the interpretation and comparison of the international "livable cities" are illustrated in this study. Spatial and temporal variations in the composition, function and feedback of the urban ecosystem are analyzed, and present us with following results: (1) the underlying impacts on the urban surface energy distribution are due to the differences among urban architecture (e.g. shape, volume), urban planning schemes (e.g. avenue, community), and thermal admittance (e.g. albedo, open space); (2) canopy complexity in the surrounding environment, between buildings, in city parks and other open spaces are essential to the surface energy balance. The international "livable cities" show the similarity that there are large-scale and low-density residential areas around the inner city (or metropolitan areas) with medium surface energy values as buffer and transition zones from urban to non-urban areas; (3) land surface energy change in urban open space is greater than metropolitan areas, and the proportional distribution of urban open space shows higher ratio of low-medium surface energy in the international "livable cities"; and (4) high surface energy areas are displayed with relatively smaller and more scattered pattern. Knowledge of the quantification of the surface energy and ecosystem assessment indicator are necessary for a better understanding of urban surface energy balance and are imperative for urban planning schemes.

Key words: urban ecosystem, remote sensing, surface energy, metropolitan areas and open space, assessment indicator