地球信息科学学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (2): 222-228.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2015.00222

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敦煌西湖自然保护区湿地演化及驱动力分析

段浩1(), 潘世兵1,*(), 李琳1, 袁海峰2   

  1. 1. 中国水利水电科学研究院,北京 100038
    2. 甘肃敦煌西湖国家自然保护区管理局,敦煌 736200
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-06 修回日期:2014-09-19 出版日期:2015-02-10 发布日期:2015-02-10
  • 通讯作者: 潘世兵 E-mail:danho7331143@sina.com;pansb@iwhr.com
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:段 浩(1989-),男,硕士生,研究方向为遥感在水文水资源领域的应用。E-mail:danho7331143@sina.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41272273)

Analysis on Wetland evolution and Its Driving Factors of Dunhuang Xihu Nature Protection Area

DUAN Hao1(), PAN Shibing1,*(), LI Lin1, YUAN Haifeng2   

  1. 1. China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
    2. Management Office of Dunhuang Xihu National Nature Protection of Gansu, Dunhuang 736200, China
  • Received:2014-08-06 Revised:2014-09-19 Online:2015-02-10 Published:2015-02-10
  • Contact: PAN Shibing E-mail:danho7331143@sina.com;pansb@iwhr.com
  • About author:

    *The author: SHEN Jingwei, E-mail:jingweigis@163.com

摘要:

西湖国家级自然保护区位于河西走廊西端,是敦煌盆地人工绿洲的天然屏障。近几十年来,由于气候变化和人类水土资源过度开发,保护区生态环境持续恶化,湿地退化和沙漠化趋势日趋严重。本文运用多时相资源卫星遥感影像,解译分析了保护区湿地演化规律。结果表明:1980-2013年间有23个年份湿地处于快速退化状态,保护区湿地面积由1.72×104 hm2减少到0.99×104 hm2,减少了42.4%;保护区湿地的斑块数从32个增加到51个,平均斑块面积由537 hm2减少为213 hm2,湿地演化呈破碎化趋势。湿地分布质心向西南方向移动了11.59 km,湿地呈整体向西南缓慢移动的趋势。运用因子分析法对湿地演化的驱动因子进行了分类,并利用投影寻踪模型分析各驱动因子对湿地演化的贡献率,结果表明:下游湿地退化的根本原因是大规模引地表水和开采地下水灌溉,其次是气候变化引起的冰川退缩、径流量衰减。20世纪90年代,西湖保护区湿地处于相对稳定状态,建议敦煌地区耕地维持在20世纪90年代初的2.7×104 hm2水平,或通过节水、调整作物结构和跨流域调水等措施,压缩引地表水和开采地下水水量,灌溉用水需控制在20世纪90年代初的用水水平。该研究成果可为自然保护区湿地保护和流域综合开发提供依据。

关键词: 遥感监测, 湿地, 驱动因子分析, 投影寻踪模型

Abstract:

Xihu national nature protection area, the natural barrier of Dunhuang oasis, is located in the west of Hexi Corridor. Due to the climatic change and overdevelopment of land and water resources, the ecological environment problems such as wetland degradation and desertification have become more severe in the recent decades. The area of wetland, interpreted by multi-temporal remote sensing images, has decreased by 42.5%, from 17.2 thousands hm2 to 9.9 thousands hm2 from 1989 to 2013. The wetland evolution has a tendency of fragmentation, with its patch number increasing from 32 to 51 and the mean patch area declining from 537 hm2 to 213 hm2. The centroid of wetland moved southwest for about 11.59 km. It reveals that the wetland has a tendency of slowly moving to the southwest due to the development of Dunhuang city that located in the east of the wetland. The factor analysis is used to classify the driving factors related to wetland evaluation. Lastly, projection pursuit model is developed to analyze the influence of various driving factors on the wetland evaluation. The modeling result simultaneously illustrates that the wetland was in rapidly degenerated state during 23 years of the period between 1980 and 2013. The result also indicates that over-utilization of surface water and groundwater for agricultural land development is the radical reason of wetland degradation. The secondary motivation factors are glacier depletion and runoff decline caused by climatic change. In the 1990s, the wetland could keep a relatively steady state with the agricultural acreage remaining at 27 thousands hm2. Therefore, it is suggested that the scale of land use should be kept at this level, or the use of surface water and groundwater should be reduced to the level in the early 1990s through the applications of saving water, changing crop type, as well as transferring water from nearby basins. The research results could provide considerable supports to wetland protection and the integrated river-basin development planning and management.

Key words: remote sensing monitoring, wetland, factor analysis, projection pursuit