地球信息科学学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (3): 300-308.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2015.00300

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2000-2010年新疆陆地生态系统变化格局与分析

袁烨城1(), 刘海江2,*(), 李宝林1,*, 高锡章1, 许丽丽1,3, 董贵华2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国环境监测总站,北京 100012
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-22 修回日期:2014-06-10 出版日期:2015-03-10 发布日期:2015-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 刘海江,李宝林 E-mail:yuanyc@lreis.ac.cn;liuhj@cnemc.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:袁烨城(1983-),男,浙江嵊州人,博士生,研究方向为时空数据挖掘和生态环境质量评价。E-mail:yuanyc@lreis.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家“973”计划(2015CB954101、2015CB954103);国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAH33B01)

Study on the Change of Ecosystem in Xinjiang from 2000 to 2010

YUAN Yuecheng1(), LIU Haijiang2,*(), LI Baolin1, GAO Xizhang1, XU Lili1,3, DONG Guihua2   

  1. 1. State Key Lab of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. China National Environment Monitoring Center, Beijing 100012, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2014-04-22 Revised:2014-06-10 Online:2015-03-10 Published:2015-03-10
  • Contact: LIU Haijiang E-mail:yuanyc@lreis.ac.cn;liuhj@cnemc.cn
  • About author:

    *The author: SHEN Jingwei, E-mail:jingweigis@163.com

摘要:

本文以Landsat TM/ETM+数据和HJ-1卫星CCD数据,系统分析了2000-2010年新疆地区陆地生态系统变化。10年间,新疆地区建设用地、农田和湿地生态系统迅速扩张,分别增加了30.5%、26.7%和10.2%;草地与灌丛生态系统则大量减少,分别减少了2.4%和5.1%;冰川积雪减少也较为明显,减少了1.6%;荒漠和森林生态系统变化较小。生态系统变化热点区域主要分布在传统绿洲区,尤其是天山南北麓的绿洲区。水利设施改善与灌溉节水技术进步,以及国家西部开发战略导致灌草地被大量开垦为农田,人口增长则是建设用地增加的主因;全球气候变暖使冰川积雪减少明显,20世纪60年代至今面积减少了16.7%~32.5%,导致山区湿地生态系统增加;国家生态环境保护工程则有效地遏制了林地与荒漠生态系统的恶化趋势。山地水源涵养区除了要严格控制森林砍伐外,还要严格禁止灌草的开垦,控制绿洲农田的增加和重视生态过渡带的保护,并加强全球气候变化对新疆水资源影响的研究,以制定相关对策。

关键词: 陆地生态系统, 新疆, 驱动因子, 生态地理区

Abstract:

In this paper, the spatial pattern, trend and driving forces of ecosystem change of Xinjiang from 2000 to 2010 are derived based on the remote sense data (Landsat TM/ETM+ and HJ-1 CCD). During this period, urban construction area, cropland and wetland had expanded rapidly, that increased by 30.5%、26.7% and 10.2% respectively. Meanwhile, grassland, shrub had massively decreased by 2.4% and 5.1%. Glacier area had also significantly retreated by about 1.6%. Woodland and desert were almost unchanged. Traditional oasis was the majority area of change, especially in the south and north foot of Tianshan mountains. Technical improvement of water conservancy facilities and national west part development strategy are the primary causes of transformations of grassland and shrub into cropland. Population growth is the driving force of urban construction area increase. Due to global warming, a great amount of glacier area of the percentage between 16.7% and 32.5% had disappeared since 1960s, which resulted in the increase of wetland. National eco-environment projects, e.g. Three North Shelterbelt, was established to protect woodland and desert from further deterioration. This paper presented some suggestions to keep the ecological security of Xinjiang: (1) forbidding deforestation and developing cropland in mountain area to recover its water conservation function; (2) restricting the increase of cropland in oasis because it has already exceeded the theoretical water resources carrying capacity of Xinjiang; (3) protecting the transition zone to ensure the ecological security of oasis in the piedmont plain; (4) constructing artificial grassland and utilizing the crop straw to develop animal husbandry; (5) strengthening the research under the impact of global climate change on water resources to assist future policy making.

Key words: terrestrial ecosystems, Xinjiang, drive forces, eco-geographical zones