地球信息科学学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (7): 855-861.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2015.00855

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卫星红外遥感技术在我国环保领域中的应用与发展分析

赵少华1,2(), 王桥1,2, 游代安1,2**(), 姚云军3, 朱利1,2, 随欣欣4, 张丽娟1,2, 李静1,2   

  1. 1. 环境保护部卫星环境应用中心,北京 100094
    2. 国家环境保护卫星遥感重点实验室,北京 100094
    3. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875
    4. 中国国土资源航空物探遥感中心,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2014-12-08 修回日期:2015-01-08 出版日期:2015-12-10 发布日期:2015-07-08
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:赵少华(1980-),男,博士后,高级工程师,主要从事环境定量遥感研究。E-mail: zshyytt@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家高分辨率对地观测重大专项(E05-Y30B02-9001-13/15-1);国家自然科学基金项目(41101313、41201331)

Preliminary Analysis on the Application of Satellite Infrared Remote Sensing Techniques in Environmental Protection of China

ZHAO Shaohua1,2(), WANG Qiao1,2, YOU Dai´an1,2,*(), YAO Yunjun3, ZHU Li1,2, SUI Xinxin4, ZHANG Lijuan1,2, LI Jing1,2   

  1. 1. Satellite Environment Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100094 China
    2. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Satellite Remote Sensing, Beijing 100101, China
    3. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    4. China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Land and Resources, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2014-12-08 Revised:2015-01-08 Online:2015-12-10 Published:2015-07-08
  • Contact: YOU Dai´an E-mail:zshyytt@126.com;youdaian@163.com
  • About author:

    *The author: SHEN Jingwei, E-mail:jingweigis@163.com

摘要:

本文较为系统地分析了卫星红外遥感技术在我国秸秆焚烧、沙尘、气溶胶、颗粒物、灰霾等大气环境遥感监测,水华、水质参数、水表温度、热污染、核电厂温排水等水环境遥感监测,以及土壤含水量、地表温度、干旱、城市热岛效应等生态环境遥感监测的应用。同时,指出目前国产卫星红外载荷业务化应用程度不高、辐射定标能力不足、应用反演算法原创性不强、地面观测和试验验证能力不足等问题;并提出需大力发展国产红外传感器、提高辐射定标能力、发展国内原创监测算法、建设大型环保应用综合试验场等建议,以促进红外遥感技术在环境保护领域的应用和发展。

关键词: 秸秆焚烧, 沙尘, 气溶胶, 温排水, 地表温度, 城市热岛

Abstract:

Satellite Infrared remote sensing (RS) technologies, which include the near-infrared, shortwave infrared, middle infrared, and thermal infrared RS, have been widely used over the world, and it has been playing an important role in the field of environmental protection in China. This paper focuses on introducing the recent applications of RS, including: monitoring the straw burning, dust storm, aerosol optical depth, particle matters, and haze pollution for air environment quality monitoring; monitoring the blue algae, water quality (factors include chlorophyll-a, suspended sediment, transparency, and nutrition condition index), water surface temperature, thermal-water pollution, and warm water discharge of nuclear power plant for water environment quality monitoring; and monitoring the soil water content, vegetation water content, drought, evapotranspiration, land surface temperature, and urban heat island for ecological environment quality monitoring. Some typical application cases are illustrated in this paper, including the distribution of straw burning sites in China using satellite data; the monitoring of warm water discharge for Dayawan nuclear power plant; and the monitoring of Beijing urban heat island. In the end, we point out the existing limitations for remote sensing application, such as the low application level of domestic satellites due to its low spatial and temporal resolution, the limited signal to noise ratio, the deficiency in radiation calibration, the lack of original created algorithms, and the deficiency in ground observation and validation. Meanwhile, we proposed suggestions for further development, such as vigorously developing domestic infrared remote sensors, enhancing the level of satellite and ground radiation calibration, studying the original algorithms for environment monitoring, and constructing comprehensive ground experiment bases, etc. The development of satellite RS techniques, especially for the Project of China High Resolution Earth Observation, which is designed to carry various advanced infrared RS payloads, will significantly improve the quantitative monitoring level of environmental application in China.

Key words: straw burning, dust storm, aerosol, warm water discharge, land surface temperature, urban heat island.