地球信息科学学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (8): 909-916.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2015.00909

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北京典型区地面沉降演化特征与成因分析

张雯1(), 宫辉力1,2,3**(), 陈蓓蓓1,2,3, 段光耀1,2,3   

  1. 1. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院,北京 100048
    2. 城市环境过程与数字模拟国家重点实验室培育基地,北京 100048
    3. 三维信息获取与应用教育部重点实验室,北京 100048
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-20 修回日期:2015-01-22 出版日期:2015-08-10 发布日期:2015-08-05
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张 雯(1992-),女,本科生,研究方向为地图学与地理信息系统。E-mail: 13810628119@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目“北京地区地面沉降三维形变及演化机理研究”(41130744);国家自然科学基金面上项目“地下水降落漏斗区动静载荷演化诱发地面沉降机理研究”(41171335),“973”计划前期研究专项课题“城市典型区域不均匀沉降信息获取与机理研究”(2012CB723403)

Evolution and Genetic Analysis of Land Subsidence in Beijing Typical Area

ZHANG Wen1(), GONG Huili1,2,3,*(), CHEN Beibei1,2,3, DUAN Guangyao1,2,3   

  1. 1. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
    2. Base of the State Key Laboratory of Urban Environmental Process and Digital Modeling, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
    3. Key Laboratory of 3D Information Acquisition and Application of Ministry, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2014-08-20 Revised:2015-01-22 Online:2015-08-10 Published:2015-08-05
  • Contact: GONG Huili E-mail:13810628119@163.com;gonghl@263.net
  • About author:

    *The author: SHEN Jingwei, E-mail:jingweigis@163.com

摘要:

北京从20世纪50、60年代发现地面沉降以来,其一直呈快速发展的态势。在过去的几十年里,北京市地面沉降的范围和速度逐年增加。本文以北京市典型地面沉降区为研究区,选择永久散射体合成孔径雷达干涉测量技术所获取的2004-2010年间北京地面沉降信息作为主要数据源,补充水准测量数据(1955-2010年),从空间分布和时序变化2个角度,分析北京市平原典型区地面沉降演化特征。结合地下水动态监测网数据、土地利用数据,采用GIS空间分析,研究各因素和地面沉降之间的时空响应关系。结果表明,北京地区地面沉降严重区域面积不断扩大,且局部不均匀程度逐渐增加。在研究期内,地下水水位变化在时间和空间上与地面沉降有较高的一致性,地下水超量开采是影响北京地区地面沉降的最主要因素,而城市发展过程中的工程活动也是影响地面沉降时空分布特征的因素之一。研究结果可为北京市地面沉降防控提供一定的科学依据。

关键词: 北京典型区, 地面沉降, 时空演化, 地下水, 城市建设

Abstract:

Since land subsidence was firstly discovered in the 1950s in Beijing city, it has revealed a rapid developing trend. In the past few decades, land subsidence has been increasing in both its range and speed year by year and become one of the most serious disasters affecting the safety and development of Beijing [1]. In this paper, we choose four typical subsidence locations as the study area. The land subsidence information of the typical area in Beijing plain during 2004-2010 was used as the primary data source. This is acquired by Permanent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (PS-InSAR) method, which has high accuracy and been widely used in deformation monitoring and land subsidence research. Meanwhile, the conventional monitoring data (1955-2010) was adopted as the supplement data. Then, we analyzed subsidence evolution characteristics from two aspects: spatial distribution and temporal evolution. Combing with the groundwater dynamic monitoring data, the land-use data from remote sensing and the using of GIS spatial analysis, we study the spatial and temporal respond and the important factors affecting land subsidence. The result shows that the seriously affected areas of ground subsidence in Beijing had expanded unceasingly, and the degree of unevenness has been gradually increasing. During the study period, the change of groundwater level had a high consistency with land subsidence in temporal and spatial distribution. In the process of urban development, engineering activities were considered another factor affecting the characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution of land subsidence. In this paper, our research indicated that the excessive exploitation of groundwater is the main influence factor for the subsidence in Beijing; and the rapid development of city leading to large-scale construction is also one of the factors that make the subsidence worse and more serious. The results have considerable referential importance and can provide a scientific basis for the prevention of land subsidence in Beijing.

Key words: Beijing typical area, land subsidence, spatial-temporal evolution, groundwater, urban development