地球信息科学学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (11): 1395-1403.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2015.01395

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

贵州省喀斯特地区泥石流灾害易发性评价

岳溪柳1,2(), 黄玫1,*(), 徐庆勇3, 陈昌彦4, 谷晓平5   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 北京市水文地质工程地质大队,北京 100195
    4. 北京市勘察设计研究院,北京 100038
    5. 贵州省山地气候与资源重点实验室,贵阳 550002
  • 收稿日期:2014-12-25 修回日期:2015-05-19 出版日期:2015-11-10 发布日期:2015-11-10
  • 通讯作者: 黄玫 E-mail:yuexiliu8518@163.com;huangm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:岳溪柳(1988-),女,博士生,主要从事山地灾害与环境脆弱性评价研究。E-mail: yuexiliu8518@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目“西南突发性灾害应急与防控技术集成与示范”(2012BAD20B06);贵州省山地环境气候研究所院士工作站项目(2014GZ93962)

The Susceptibility Assessment of Debris Flow in Karst Region of Guizhou Province

YUE Xiliu1,2(), HUANG Mei1,*(), XU Qingyong3, CHEN Changyan4, GU Xiaoping5   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Beijing Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, Beijing 100101, China
    4. BGI Engineering Consultants LTD, Beijing 100101, China
    5. Guizhou Key Laboratory of Mountainous Climate and Resource, Guiyang 550002, China
  • Received:2014-12-25 Revised:2015-05-19 Online:2015-11-10 Published:2015-11-10
  • Contact: HUANG Mei E-mail:yuexiliu8518@163.com;huangm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • About author:

    *The author: CHEN Nan, E-mail:fjcn99@163.com

摘要:

贵州省独特的喀斯特山地环境对地质灾害的孕育有其特有的作用机理。本文初选了10个相关因子进行GIS的方差分析及相关性分析,以筛选喀斯特山区泥石流灾害的主要影响因子及灾害易发性评价。结果表明,研究区内土壤侵蚀因子对泥石流灾害的贡献作用最为显著,断层的影响作用不明显。土壤侵蚀、坡度、坡向、岩石性质、土地利用方式、归一化植被指数(NDVI)、到沟谷的距离及>25 mm日数8个影响因子,具有良好的独立性和代表性,是研究区内泥石流易发性评价的最佳指标;泥石流主要分布在贵州西部云贵高原边境、北部大娄山、东北雾灵山及苗岭等地带,占全省面积的29.51%,贵州中部及东南部泥石流易发程度较低;极高易发区泥石流的分布密度是极低易发区的19倍,其主要的环境特征表现为坡度大、植被覆盖率较低,旱地与工矿用地分布多,土壤侵蚀严重;加强旱地、工矿用地及低植被覆盖区的合理利用及管理,是减少泥石流灾害发生的有效途径。

关键词: 喀斯特, 泥石流, 易发性评价, 贵州, GIS

Abstract:

Guizhou is a typical karst mountainous province in China, which has unique geological disaster mechanism due to its unique geological environment. In this study, 10 factors were selected as the possible impact factors, and the cluster analysis and correlation analysis methods were used to identify the main risks of debris flow factors. Based on the techniques of geo-information system, information model was used to evaluate the spatial pattern of debris flow susceptibility. Soil erosion is identified as the most important factor to influence the occurrence of native debris flow, while fault has little impact on debris flow. Factors of soil erosion, slop, aspect, rock characteristics, land use, NDVI, distance to gully and days of daily precipitation greater than 25mm are proved to be independent and representative factors, and they served as indices for susceptibility assessment. The results show that 29.51% of the regions in Guizhou are heavy susceptibility regions, which were located in western Guizhou and the mountainous area, such as Dalou mountain, Wuling mountain and Miaoling in northern Guizhou. The central and southeastern Guizhou is identified as relative less susceptibility region. Heavy susceptibility areas have common characteristics of steep slope, low vegetation coverage, featuring with dry land, industrial and mining land, and are subjected to serious soil erosion. The debris flow density in heavy susceptibility region is 19 times of that in the low susceptibility region. The effective way to decrease debris flow disaster is to strengthen the management of dry land, industrial and mining land, and the area with lower vegetation cover.

Key words: karst, debris flow, susceptibility assessment, Guizhou, GIS