地球信息科学学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (11): 1404-1411.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2015.01404

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

南京市老城区城市建筑点格局研究

叶娟娟(), 杨昕*(), 熊礼阳, 严艳梓, 王婷婷   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023; 2. 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023; 3. 南京师范大学虚拟地理环境教育部重点实验室,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-10 修回日期:2015-06-02 出版日期:2015-11-10 发布日期:2015-11-10
  • 通讯作者: 杨昕 E-mail:18502547728@163.com;xxinyang@njnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:叶娟娟(1990-),女,江苏苏州人,硕士生,主要从事数字地形分析研究。E-mail: 18502547728@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点基金项目(41271438);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目

Point Pattern Analysis of Urban Buildings in Nanjing old Town

YE Juanjuan(), YANG Xin*(), XIONG Liyang, YAN Yanzi, WANG Tingting   

  1. 1. School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China; 2. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China; 3. Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2015-04-10 Revised:2015-06-02 Online:2015-11-10 Published:2015-11-10
  • Contact: YANG Xin E-mail:18502547728@163.com;xxinyang@njnu.edu.cn
  • About author:

    *The author: CHEN Nan, E-mail:fjcn99@163.com

摘要:

城市建筑是城市形态的重要组成部分,而建筑高度对城市三维空间形态有重要的影响。目前,对城市二维形态的研究较为丰富,而对城市三维起伏形态特征及其空间分布格局方面研究较少,对城市上空利用程度及发展规律认识仍相对缺乏。本文以南京市老城区为例,基于城市数字高程模型数据,将城市建筑抽象为三维点要素,运用点格局分析法研究城市建筑三维宏观特征及建筑类型的空间分布规律。结果显示:(1)南京老城区建筑呈集聚分布,聚集性顺序是低层建筑>高层建筑>多层建筑>超高层建筑。除超高层建筑外,低层、多层和高层建筑的聚集程度,随着空间尺度先增后减,均在1.5 km尺度聚集性最大;显示1.5 km的街区单元应是城市规划管理的最适宜单元。(2)南京老城区建筑高度空间分布表现为“三高一低”,即3个高值区(新模范马路、新街口和珠江路区域)和1个低值区(集庆门区域),它们与不同时期城市中心具有较好的对应关系;不同类型建筑与城市基准地价的相关分析显示,建筑高度的分布与城市基准地价呈现一定相关性。结果表明,点格局分析方法能有效地分析城市建筑在平面及三维的空间格局特征,进一步深化对城市形态特征的认识。

关键词: 点格局分析法, 城市建筑高度, 空间尺度, 南京市老城区

Abstract:

Urban architecture is an important ingredient of urban morphology, and the building height has an important influence on 3D urban morphology. Nowadays, many researches have focused on 2D urban morphology, but only a few studies focus on the 3D morphological characteristics and the spatial distribution pattern of urban cities. Also, studies on utilization and organization of the air space above cities are scarce. Based on urban digital elevation model (UDEM) of Nanjing old town, the urban architectures were simplified and transformed from rectangle representations into 3D point elements, and then were classified into four types of point groups according to the building height. The 3D macroscopic characteristics and spatial distribution pattern of the Nanjing old town architectures were studied using point pattern analysis method. The results showed that: (1) the building distribution pattern in Nanjing old town was clustered in the order shown as follows: low-rise buildings > high-rise buildings > multistory buildings>ultra-tall buildings. Except for super-tall buildings, the cluster degree for the other three types of buildings increased firstly and then decreased, and the highest value appeared at 1.5km, indicating that the block unit at this spatial scale was the most appropriate unit for urban planning in Nanjing old town. (2) The building height distribution in Nanjing old town showed three high-valued areas which were in the New Model Road, Xin Jiekou District and Zhu Jiang Road, and one low-valued area which appeared in the Jiqing Arch Street. All of them have good corresponding relations with the city center in different historical periods, and the distribution of building height also has a correlation with urban benchmark land price. The above results further demonstrated that the point pattern analysis is an effective method to analyze the characteristics of urban construction in planar and three-dimensional space, which is helpful for studying urban morphology characteristics.

Key words: point pattern analysis, building height, space scale, Nanjing old town