地球信息科学学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (1): 2-13.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2016.00002

• 中国古-近代地图挖掘、分析与利用专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国古-近-现代地图的传承脉络探究

齐清文()   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-13 修回日期:2015-09-13 出版日期:2016-01-10 发布日期:2016-01-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:齐清文(1963-),男,博士,研究员,主要从事地图学理论、方法与应用研究。E-mail: qiqw@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    科技基础性工作专项项目“《中国近代地图志》编研”(2012FY120200)

Research on the Heritage Sequence of Chinese Ancient, Near-modern and Modern Cartography

QI Qingwen()   

  1. Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2015-07-13 Revised:2015-09-13 Online:2016-01-10 Published:2016-01-10

摘要:

本文探究中国古-近-现代地图的传承和发展脉络,有地图制图技术传承和地图数据资料传承两重含义。中国古代地图学对近代地图学影响最大的是“计里画方”技术、西晋裴秀的“制图六体”理论、唐代贾耽的制图方法和作品、宋代沈括的二十四位向和“制图七法”、元代朱思本理论和技术体系及其地图作品5项成果。明代地图制图的传承和发展有3个分支(传承线),即传统疆域和全国地图制图、航海图和海防图、引入西方制图技术后的近代地图萌芽;清代地图学的传承和发展的5个分支(传承线),即皇家主导的全国地图制图、民间自发的全国地图制图、世界地图制图、海洋图制图、工程地图制图;民国时期的地图制图传承和发展的6个分支(传承线),即私营出版社制图、专题地图制图、航海和航道地图制图、工程地图制图、地形图制图、军事地图制图。中国古代和近代地图,对当今的地图学而言,有丰富的史料、文物价值,也有一定的信息承载价值,但在利用上有相当的难度,需要我们深入研究,探讨出适合的地图再利用模式;从地图表现形式来看,现代地图学似乎有“仿古”的趋势,但这是科学发展的一种螺旋式上升,代表了从古代地图到现代地图传承与发展的“否定之否定”的辩证式升华。

关键词: 中国古代地图, 中国近代地图, 地图传承, 脉络

Abstract:

This paper researched the heritage sequence of Chinese ancient, near-modern and modern cartography, including two heritage aspects of cartographic theory-technologies and map data. The five most important and influential items of Chinese ancient cartography that have impacts on the near-modern cartography were the method of “counting distance and drawing maps according to affine squares”, the “Six Key-Point of Mapping” by Pei Xiu in the West-Jin dynasty, Jia Dan’s mapping method and map products in Tang dynasty, Shen Kuo’s 24 directions and “Seven Method of Mapping” in Song dynasty, and Zhu Siben’s cartographic theory, technologies and map products. There were three cartographic heritage lines in Ming dynasty, i.e., the heritage line of traditional territory and national mapping, the heritage line of nautical and coastal defense mapping, and the heritage line of embryonic stage of Chinese near-modern cartography after the introduction of western mapping technologies. As for the Qing dynasty, there were five cartographic heritage lines, which were the emperor sponsored national mapping, the non-governmental national mapping, the world map compilation, the nautical map compilation, and the engineering map making. And in the publican period, there were six cartographic heritage lines, which were the map making through private publishing houses, the edition of thematic maps, the nautical and sea & river route navigation mapping, the engineering map making, the topographic map making, and the map making for military affairs. In the modern society, the Chinese ancient and near-modern cartographic achievements are meaningful and helpful to the historical research and cultural relic exploration, while having some difficulties in map re-use, thus further research is necessary on the re-use of these maps. From the aspect of map representation, there is a tendency that the ancient and near-modern cartographic method would return to the modern cartography, but this is like a spiral rise of scientific development, representing a process of the negation of negation for the Chinese cartographic heritage and development from the ancient time to modern society.

Key words: Chinese ancient cartography, Chinese near-modern cartography, cartographic heritage, sequence