地球信息科学学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (1): 14-20.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2016.00014

• 中国古-近代地图挖掘、分析与利用专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国古代天文图的主要成就与贡献探讨

梁启章(), 王晶   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息国家重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-20 修回日期:2015-05-16 出版日期:2016-01-10 发布日期:2016-01-19
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:梁启章(1940-),男,研究员,研究方向为地图学、GIS与农业信息化。E-mail:articled@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    科技部基础性工作专项项目“《中国近代地图志》编研”(2012FY120200)

Explore the Achievements and Contributions of Chinese Ancient Astronomical Figures

LIANG Qizhang*(), WANG Jing   

  1. State key laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2015-04-20 Revised:2015-05-16 Online:2016-01-10 Published:2016-01-19
  • Contact: LIANG Qizhang E-mail:articled@163.com

摘要:

本文在编写《中国近代地图志》天文图篇的基础上,系统地梳理了中国古代天学家在创立“浑天说”,制造观象仪,实施天文观测和天文大地测量,制作天文图等方面的杰出成就。始于战国时期“石申夫”编制的第一个恒星表,汉代“张衡”创建的“浑天说”和世界第一台“浑天仪”,唐代“张遂”首次完成全国13个点的天文大地测量;元代郭守敬完成27个点的纬度“四海测验”与“水准测量”等,以及迄今发现的《战国前随县曾侯乙墓漆箱盖天文图》、《西汉壁画墓四象二十八宿星图》、《敦煌星图》、《苏州石刻天文图》、《过洋牵星图》、《恒星屏障图》和《赤道南北两侧总星图》等均为同时代世界首创古天文图,并以科学的天文图制作方法,展示出中国古地图大家庭中的佼佼者风范,在中国传统地图学发展过程中做出了重要贡献。

关键词: 古代天文测量, 古代天文图, 中国传统地图学

Abstract:

This paper is finished on the purpose of writing an article of astronomical map for “Near-Modern Chinese Map Annals”, and we take a systematically study on the outstanding achievements of Chinese ancient astronomers in founding the "Theory of Sphere-Heavens", manufacturing “Armillary Sphere”, implementing astronomical observation and astronomical geodetic survey, and creating astronomical maps. The earliest recorded “Star table” was created by "Shi Shenfu" during the warring states period before in the 4th century B.C.; then, “Zhang Heng” created "Theory of Sphere-Heavens" and made the first “Turn Leaky Armillary Sphere” in the world during Han Dynasty in the 2nd century; Zhang Sui completed the national astronomical geodetic survey at 13 spots across China and is the first one who calculated the 1° arc length of local meridian at latitude 34° north to be 110.6 kilometers during Tang Dynasty; and Guo Shoujin” implemented "Universal Measurement" and "Leveling" during Yuan Dynasty. The ancient Chinese astronomical map discovered so far including: “the astronomical figure on a paint box cover in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng in Sui county before the warring states period of China " which is created in 433 B.C.; “the start figure on the tomb murals indicating four quadrant symbols and 28 lunar mansions” which is created in the Western Han Dynasty in Xi’an city, Shaanxi Province; the "DunHuang star map" which contains more than 1350 stars and is created during 705-710 A.D.; the “Suzhou stone carving astronomical map" which contains more than 1440 stars and is created by “Huang Chang” in 1190 A.D.; the "constellation chart of crossing seas” which is created by Zheng He in 1405-1433 A.D.; the "Star Barrier Figure" which contains 1812 stars and is created by “Xu Guangqi” in the early 17th century; and the “total star map on the north and south sides of equator” which contains 1876 stars and is created by “Verbiest” in the mid 17th century. In a word, the ancient Chinese astronomical geodetic results provided foundation for global positioning, and the “circular methods” of ancient astronomical map are similar to the “azimuthal projection”, which greatly improved and enhanced China's traditional cartography. The scientific methods of making the astronomical map with “circular” showed the excellence of “Traditional Cartography Family”, and made important contribution in the process of developing Chinese traditional cartography.

Key words: ancient astronomical surveying, ancient astronomical figure, traditional cartography