地球信息科学学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (1): 39-48.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2016.00039

• 中国古-近代地图挖掘、分析与利用专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国明、清时期黄河和京杭大运河地图的特征与价值

姜莉莉(), 齐清文*(), 赵锴   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-19 修回日期:2015-09-10 出版日期:2016-01-10 发布日期:2016-01-10
  • 通讯作者: 齐清文 E-mail:jiangll@igsnrr.ac.cn;qiqw@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:姜莉莉(1972-),女,辽宁大连人,博士,研究方向为地图学与地理信息。E-mail: jiangll@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    科技部基础性项目“《中国近代地图志》编研”项目(2012FY120200);国家自然科学基金青年基金项目“面向流域特征和河网结构的水系自动选取方法研究”(41101447)

The Discussion of Drawing Characteristics and Values of Water Conservancy Maps in Ming and Qing Dynasty

JIANG Lili(), QI Qingwen*(), ZHAO Kai   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2015-05-19 Revised:2015-09-10 Online:2016-01-10 Published:2016-01-10
  • Contact: QI Qingwen E-mail:jiangll@igsnrr.ac.cn;qiqw@igsnrr.ac.cn

摘要:

黄河是中华民族的母亲河,而京杭大运河则担负着河运的重要职责,其重要性决定了古代关于黄运工程及其治理的地图数量繁多。本文旨在通过对大量明、清时期黄河、京杭大运河水利地图的梳理,对明、清时期水利地图的载体形式、表现形式和绘制特点进行剖析,并探讨其在地理学、地图学、水利学方面的应用价值和研究价值。明、清时期的黄河、京杭大运河地图,从载体形式来分,主要分为水利典籍(志书、图说)附图和绘本舆图2类:前者多为示意性地图,画法比较简单,只起到辅助说明水利典籍的作用;后者多采用山水形象画法绘制,多为长卷展开景物再现式地图,其主要特点是形象直观。其采用的“对景法”地图表现形式(即所绘黄河、京杭大运河两岸各类地物要素均朝向河流中心线),容易引起读者的视觉共鸣,轻松构筑被描画事物的整体画面。从表现形式和绘制特点来看,明、清时期还出现了另外2类地图:计里画方类地图和经纬度实测地图,但由于其实用性和艺术性不如山水形象画法地图,因此,这2类地图在明、清并没有得到广泛普及。但从功能和价值而言,不论是长卷展开式古地图、计里画方类古地图,还是经纬度实测地图,对于古地图史、历史地理学、古代水利研究,对如今的地图、水利、地理学研究等,都是不可多得的历史瑰宝。

关键词: 水利地图, 古地图绘制, 地图史, 黄河古地图, 京杭大运河地图

Abstract:

The Yellow River is called "the cradle of Chinese civilization", and the Grand Canal has taken the important responsibility of river transportation, while their importance also reveals that there were a lot of ancient maps about the Yellow River and Grand Canal. This paper mainly discusses the drawing characteristics, content summarization and value analysis of water conservancy maps in Ming and Qing Dynasty through exploring many ancient Yellow River maps and Grand Canal maps. The yellow river and canal maps in Ming and Qing Dynasty are divided into two categories based on map representations, which are the drawing (annals, illustrated) maps recorded in the water conservancy books and the illustrated maps. The illustrated map is the main type adopted in Ming and Qing dynasty which portrays the scenes of rivers and other facilities. The illustrated maps are mostly drawn in the forms of landscape painting and image rendering. Theses scroll maps aim to reproduce the historical scenes vividly. All the landscape features along the Yellow River and Grand Canal are aggregating toward the centerline of the river. This type of map can easily arouse the reader's visual resonance and build a complete picture of all features. The ancient Yellow River maps and Grand Canal maps, especially the maps produced in Ming and Qing Dynasty, based on the map drawing techniques, can be divided into three types: one is scene reproduced expand map, which is the most popular type of maps in Ming and Qing Dynasty; in addition to this type of painting maps, the painted square class maps and the latitude and longitude maps are also developed in Ming and Qing Dynasty. But these two types of ancient maps are not so popular at that time because they are not as good as the painting image maps comparing their practical and artistic aspects. No matter what types of ancient river and canal maps, they should be taken as historic legacies in mapping research, conservancy research and construction. However, in terms of their functions and values, whether the expansion scroll maps, square meter class maps, or latitude and longitude maps, are all rare historic legacies to the ancient cartography, historical geography and ancient water conservancy research, today's map research and geography research, which is worthy of in-depth study and discussion,

Key words: ancient water conservancy map, ancient map drawing characteristic, cartographic history, ancient map of Yellow River, ancient map of Grand Canal