地球信息科学学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (1): 49-56.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2016.00049

• 中国古-近代地图挖掘、分析与利用专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

《海国图志》的地图学价值与现实意义

梁启章(), 梁迅   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息国家重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-10 修回日期:2015-05-08 出版日期:2016-01-10 发布日期:2016-01-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:梁启章(1940-),男,研究员,研究方向为地图学、GIS与农业信息。E-mail:articlel@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    基金项目:科技部基础性工作专项项目“《中国近代地图志》编研”(2012FY120200)

Exploring the Value and Practical Significance for Cartography About “HaiGuo Tuzhi”

LIANG Qizhang*(), LIANG Xun   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2015-04-10 Revised:2015-05-08 Online:2016-01-10 Published:2016-01-10
  • Contact: LIANG Qizhang E-mail:articlel@163.com

摘要:

中国近代史上开眼看世界第一书《四洲志》的主编林则徐,亲自命名并委托魏源担任主编完成的《海国图志》,于1842-1852年连续3次出版,迅速传到日本并被争相购买,而在中国却被皇宫束之高阁。直至1978年中国实施改革开放,史地学界开始了研究《海国图志》的热潮,并高度评价其为“最完备的介绍世界历史地理的鸿篇巨著”、“中国近代第一本自编世界地图集”等。为了探索《海国图志》的成功秘诀,本文首先分析了《海国图志》100卷版内容构成,概括了《海国图志》发表后在中国与日本的不同反响;接着,重点探讨了《海图图志》的“设计思想、内容编排、编纂技术”等方面的地图学价值,以及”师夷长技以制夷”的编辑策略,着重于资料真伪分辨和发挥综合体裁协同效果等成功经验;最后,呼吁当今地图工作者努力吸取《海国图志》的宝贵经验,尽快编纂出版一本“内容真实、大型综合、服务民众”的综合性世界地图集。

关键词: 海国图志, 沿革图, 全球图, 大洲图, 区域图, 志书

Abstract:

“HaiGou Tuzhi” is an atlas of the world, which was edited by Wei Yuan, who complied with the great trust of Lin Zexu. Based on the “four continents annals" created by Lin Zexu, “HaiGouTuzhi” was then published three times in a row between 1842 and 1852. Some mainstream scholars in China laugh at “it's childish”, and China's imperial palace put it on the shelf. However, it was spread to Japan and the book sold quickly, which effectively promoted the reform revolution of Japan started in the middle of the 19th century. Until the late 20th century, China's implementation of reform and opening launched the research boom of "HaiGou Tuzhi" by historian, geographer and cartographer, and they speak highly of it as "the most comprehensive magnum opus on the world for geography and history", "the first world atlas compiled in the near-modern of China", and so on. Firstly, this paper analyzed "HaiGuo Tuzhi" with its 100 volumes, which including 75 maps and 880,000 texts divided into 10 parts, including chapters of "The preface", "Coastal defense", "Maps", "Annals", "Religious calendar", "Countries in general", "Coastal defense in general", "Foreign affairs record set", "Weapons and equipment", and "The earth’s astronomical theory". In the meantime, this research outlines the multi-angle studies and comments on "HaiGuo Tuzhi" from China and Japan, mainly discusses the values of cartography such as "designing idea”, “content arrangement”, ”compiling technology" and so on; as well as introduces the editing strategy of "Learning from Foreigners to Competing Foreigners", and successful experiences and focuses on distinguishing data authenticity and the comprehensive genre in editing “HaiGuo Tuzhi”. All of these have important practical significance. At last, we suggest that today's cartographer should try to absorb the cartography “nutrition” from "HaiGuo Tuzhi" and positively response to the new requirements of the era of deepening reform and opening up, to compile and publish a new comprehensive atlas of the world with "real data, large-scale and integrated information, and provide services to people" as soon as possible.

Key words: HaiGuo Tuzhi, evolution map, global map, continents map, areal Map, annals