地球信息科学学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (3): 286-297.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2016.00286

• 扶贫空间信息系统关键技术研究专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于生态系统服务价值评估的我国集中连片重点贫困区生态补偿研究

许丽丽1,2(), 李宝林1,3,*(), 袁烨城1, 高锡章1, 张涛1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-15 修回日期:2015-11-10 出版日期:2016-03-10 发布日期:2016-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 李宝林 E-mail:xull@lreis.ac.cn;libl@lreis.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:许丽丽(1985-),女,博士生,研究方向为干旱区遥感环境变化检测.E-mail:xull@lreis.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目课题(2012BAH33B01);国家"973"计划项目(2015CB954103,2015CB954101)

A Study on Eco-compensation Based on Eco-Service Assessment in 14 Contiguous Destitute Areas of China

XU Lili1,2(), LI Baolin1,3,*(), YUAN Yuecheng1, GAO Xizhang1, TAO Zhang1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Lab of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2015-07-15 Revised:2015-11-10 Online:2016-03-10 Published:2016-03-10
  • Contact: LI Baolin E-mail:xull@lreis.ac.cn;libl@lreis.ac.cn

摘要:

本文基于2010年Landsat TM/ETM+数据,HJ-1卫星CCD数据,MODIS17A3净初级生产力数据和土壤,气候的地面实测数据,采用以生态系统服务价值为基础的区域差异化生态补偿估算方法,对中国14个集中连片贫困区生态补偿标准进行了估算.研究结果表明,2010年中国14个集中连片贫困区生态系统服务总价值达20 627.4亿元,与同年该区域GDP总量 22 096.2亿元大体相当,在南疆三地州,四省藏区和西藏片区3个西部片区,每年的生态系统服务总价值为GDP总量的2-12倍,这对保障中国生态安全具有重要意义.在14个集中连片特困区,生态补偿所需资金每年约为1971.0亿元,平均每县约为2.9亿元.目前,国家给予的生态补偿资金与此相比严重不足,即使是接受一般性财政转移支付的国家重点生态功能区,其各县市平均每年接受补偿资金也仅为0.94亿元,不到所需金额的1/3.生态补偿资金不足不但给各片区扶贫工作带来巨大压力,也带来了严重的生态风险.因此,生态补偿资金增量的投入可能是解决集中连片特困区贫困问题关键所在,在此增量补偿资金基础上,集中连片特困区可建立以国家购买生态产品为主,开发性扶贫增长为辅的可持续经济增长模式,这可能是彻底解决中国集中连片特困地区贫困问题的基本途径.

关键词: 集中连片特困区, 生态系统服务价值, 生态补偿, 扶贫开发

Abstract:

This paper calculated the eco-compensation standard in China's 14 contiguous destitute areas based on eco-service assessment using the remote sensing data (Landsat TM/ETM+ and HJ-1 CCD) combined with the ground observation data consisting of soil, vegetation and climate datasets. The results are indicated as follows: (1) The ecosystem in China's 14 contiguous destitute areas was important to the national ecological security showing a high eco-service value up to 2062.7 billion per year, which was roughly the same as the annual gross domestic product (GDP). In certain west areas, the annual eco-service values were 2 to 12 times higher than their annual GDP, reflecting their significant contributions to the national ecological security. (2) The eco-compensation standard in China's 14 contiguous destitute areas was overall about 197.1 billion per year. The average eco-compensation standard for each impoverished county was about 0.3 billion theoretically, which indicated that the central government's financial transfer payment could not cover this amount currently. At present, the impoverished county which benefits from the financial transfer could receive 0.09 billion per year averagely, and this only covers 32.4% of the necessary eco-compensation. This situation brings enormous pressure to the poverty alleviation work and increases the ecological risk in China's 14 contiguous destitute areas as well. (3) Increasing the eco-compensation standard for the contiguous destitute areas might be the key measure to solve the problem of poverty. Besides, local government should develop a new poverty alleviation strategy, in which the ecological products development is considered to be predominant and the economic development to be auxiliary.

Key words: contiguous destitute areas of China, eco-service value, eco-compensation, poverty alleviation and development