地球信息科学学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (12): 1698-1706.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2016.01698

• 遥感科学与应用技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京城市建筑密度分布对热岛效应的影响研究

葛亚宁1(), 徐新良2, 李静3,*(), 蔡红艳2, 张学霞1   

  1. 1. 北京林业大学,北京 100083
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    3. 环境保护部卫星环境应用中心,北京 100094
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-28 修回日期:2016-04-08 出版日期:2016-12-27 发布日期:2016-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 李静 E-mail:sugar0417@163.com;lijhappy@163.com
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:葛亚宁(1990-)女,安徽蚌埠人,硕士生,主要从事3S技术在资源环境中的应用研究。E-mail:sugar0417@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAC03B01);中国科学院重点部署项目(KJZD-EW-TZ-G10)

Study on the Influence of Urban Building Density on the Heat Island Effect in Beijing

GE Yaning1(), XU Xinliang2, LI Jing3,*(), CAI Hongyan2, ZHANG Xuexia1   

  1. 1. Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, State KeyLaboratory of Resources and Environmental Information Systems, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Satellite Environment Center, Ministry of Environment Protection, Beijing 100094, China
  • Received:2015-12-28 Revised:2016-04-08 Online:2016-12-27 Published:2016-12-20
  • Contact: LI Jing E-mail:sugar0417@163.com;lijhappy@163.com

摘要:

“热岛效应”是现代城市气候的主要特征之一,本文基于高分辨率遥感影像,通过人工目视解译获取了北京市五环内的不同建筑密度区,进而结合遥感反演获得的地表温度数据,分析了城市建筑密度分布与城市热岛效应及其变化之间的关系。结果表明,北京市五环内的建筑以中密度区为主,高密度区次之,各建筑密度区在不同环线之间的分布也有较大差异。高密度区主要分布在二环以内,中密度和低密度建筑区主要分布在二、三环之间,高层建筑区总体分布较少,主要分布在二、三环和三、四环之间。城市建筑区的地表温度与建筑密度呈现显著正相关关系,城市建筑密度越大,其地表平均温度就越高,北京市高密度区的平均温度达到30.5 ℃,而高层建筑对热岛强度具有一定的缓解作用,北京高层建筑区的平均温度为28.32 ℃,比高密度区低2.18 ℃。从热岛强度变化来看,总体上高密度区、中密度区和低密度区的热岛强度均为增强的趋势,其中高密度区热岛强度增加的幅度最大,热岛强度增加了0.56 ℃,只有高层建筑区的热岛强度表现为减弱趋势,热岛强度降低了0.07 ℃。

关键词: 北京, 建筑密度, 热岛效应, 遥感反演

Abstract:

"Heat island effect" is one of the main features of modern urban climate. In this paper, we have obtained the information for regions with different building densities in Beijing by using the artificial visual interpretation based on the high resolution remote sensing images, and then analyzed the relationship between the urban building density distribution and the urban heat island effect and its change pattern based on the land surface temperature data obtained by remote sensing inversion. The results show that the medium density building regions are the primary type within the fifth ring road in Beijing, and the area proportion of which is 23.5%. The distribution of the high density building regions is slightly less than the medium density building regions, and the area proportion of which is 12.01%. There are evident differences among the distributions of regions with different building densities within different ring roads. The high density building regions are mainly distributed within the second ring road, while the medium density building regions are commonly distributed in the whole area. The medium density building regions and the low density building regions are mainly distributed within the second-third ring road area. The overall area of the high-rise building regions is very small, and the high-rise building regions are mainly distributed within the second-third ring road area as well as the third-fourth ring road area. The relationship between the land surface temperature and the building density for the urban building regions is significantly positive, in which the higher density of the urban buildings, the higher average land surface temperature it will reach. The average temperature of the high density building regions in Beijing reached 30.5 ℃. The contribution of the high-rise building regions to the heat island intensity is small, and the average temperature of the high-rise building area is 28.32 ℃, which is 2.18 ℃ lower than the high density building regions. The distribution pattern of the average temperature for regions with different building densities among different ring roads is approximately the same. The differences of the average temperature among regions with different building densities within the second ring road are the smallest, while the average temperature of the high density building regions is obviously higher than other building density regions within the second-third ring road area and the third-fourth ring road area, and the average temperature of the high-rise building regions within the fourth-fifth ringroad area is the lowest, which is 28.09 ℃. Taking the change of heat island intensity between 2010 and 2015 into consideration, only the heat island intensity in the high-rise building regions has a weakening tendency, in which the intensity of the heat island has reduced by 0.07 ℃. While the heat island intensity in the high, medium and low density building regions have an enhancing tendency, the heat island intensity in the high density regionshas the largest growth, which had an increase of 0.56 ℃. Heat island effect is one of the most representative ecological environment problems in the process of urbanization, and the intensity of urban construction has an important impact on the urban heat island effect. Base on many researches, an appropriate reduction of the urban building density can effectively ease the occurrence of urban heat island effect.

Key words: Beijing, building density, heat island effect, remote sensing inversion