地球信息科学学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (1): 134-142.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2017.00134

• 遥感科学与应用技术 • 上一篇    

城乡不透水面增长格局及地表温度的响应特征研究

潘涛1,3(), 张弛1,**(), 杜国明2, 董金玮4,5, 迟文峰5,6   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室,乌鲁木齐 830011
    2. 东北农业大学资源与环境学院,哈尔滨 150030
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    4. Departments of Microbiology and Plant Botany, Center for Spatial Analysis, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA
    5. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    6. 内蒙古农业大学生沙漠治理学院,呼和浩特 010018
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-25 修回日期:2016-05-05 出版日期:2017-01-20 发布日期:2017-01-13
  • 通讯作者: 张弛 E-mail:pantaohlj@163.com;zc@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:潘 涛(1987-),男,黑龙江绥化人,博士生,研究方向为城市资源环境遥感、生态系统碳循环模拟。E-mail: pantaohlj@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(U1503301);东北农业大学“学术骨干”项目(16XG07)

Pattern of Impervious Surface Change and Its Effect on Land Surface Temperature in Urban and Rural Areas

PAN Tao1,3(), ZHANG Chi1,*(), DU Guoming2, DONG Jinwei4,5, CHI Wenfeng5,6   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China
    2. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. Departments of Microbiology and Plant Botany, Center for Spatial Analysis, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 USA
    5. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    6. Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, College of Desert Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia Hohhot 010018, China
  • Received:2016-01-25 Revised:2016-05-05 Online:2017-01-20 Published:2017-01-13
  • Contact: ZHANG Chi E-mail:pantaohlj@163.com;zc@ms.xjb.ac.cn

摘要:

为探究中国北方中温带,特别是东北寒区快速城市化地区城乡不透水增长格局及地表温度的响应特征,本文以哈尔滨市为例,基于国家资源环境遥感时空信息平台土地利用/覆盖变化(LUCC)数据集解译的2001年与2015年城乡建设用地和Landsat 7/8数字遥感影像,结合植被-不透水面-土壤(V-I-S)端元选取和完全约束最小二乘混合像元线性分解模型进行了不透水面提取(分辨率15 m×15 m),并运用单窗算法进行了夏季地表温度遥感反演。结果表明:2001-2015年建设用地扩张259.05 km2,不透水面上升163.96 km2,城市与乡村不透水面占各自建设用地的比例由2001年的43.92%、21.35%变化为2015年的49.14%、34.27%,城乡比例差由22.57%缩减至14.87%,单位建设用地内乡村不透水面增量较高;2001-2015年城区以低温区、中温区、高温区为主,对不透水面扩张的响应剧烈,而乡村以低温区和中温区为主,低温区和高温区响应剧烈;地表温度与不透水面具有显著正相关,在低、中、高不透水密度区分别升温1.16o、1.45和1.79 ℃,相同不透水面盖度下城市升温高于乡村。总体而言,研究区不透水面大幅扩张,温度分区变化剧烈,地表温度随不透水面增加升温效果明显。

关键词: 不透水面, 增长特征, 地表温度, 城乡地区

Abstract:

As a big city in Northeast China, Harbin has experienced dramatic urban expansion in recent decades, followed with increased impervious surface area (ISA) and land surface temperature (LST) effects. In order to explore the relationship between ISA and LST under such a rapid urbanization process in urban and rural areas, based on the National Environmental Remote Sensing temporal resource information platform of land use/cover change (LUCC) data set, we extracted the construction land for urban and rural areas between 2001 and 2015. Combined with the end-member selection model for vegetation-impervious surface-soil (V-I-S) and the fully constrained least squares linear mixed pixel decomposition model, we extracted the impervious surface (a resolution of 15 m×15 m). The mono-window algorithm and Landsat images were used to retrieve the LST of Harbin City in the summer of 2001 and 2015. The results showed that: (1) ISA had increased by 163.96 km2 and an expansion of 259.05 km2 had occurred to the construction land, indicating an increase of 10.26% between 2001 and 2015; the proportions of ISA in construction land for urban and rural areas are 43.92% and 21.35% respectively in 2001, and 49.14% and 34.27% in 2015. The ratio of the poor had reduced from 22.57 to 14.87%, and the change of per unit construction land in the rural area is more sensitive. (2) The urban areas are dominated by inferior low temperature, medium temperature and inferior high temperature, with fast increasing speeds; while the rural areas are dominated by inferior low temperature and medium temperature, within which the inferior low temperature and inferior high temperature have faster increasing speeds. (3) LST and ISA have a significant positive correlation, and the temperatures for the low, medium and high-density areas of ISA were raised up by 1.16, 1.45 and 1.79 ℃ respectively. Also, the temperature rose faster in the urban area than the rural area under the same coverage of ISA. In summary, the partitions of LST have severe changes, which are accompanied with substantial expansion of ISA, and the increase of LST is significant in response to the expansion of ISA.

Key words: impervious surface area, pattern, land surface temperature, urban and rural