地球信息科学学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (3): 355-364.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2017.00355

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄土高原生态退耕的时空分异特征

杜国明1,2(), 孙晓兵1, 刘彦随2, 郑惠玉1, 马榕徽1   

  1. 1. 东北农业大学资源与环境学院,哈尔滨 150030
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-28 修回日期:2016-05-23 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-03-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杜国明(1978-),男,博士,教授,研究方向为土地资源优化配置。E-mail:nmgdgm@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家“十二五”科技支撑计划项目“空心村快速调查识别与整治关键技术研究”(2014BAL01B01)

Temporal and Spatial-Differentiation Characteristics of Ecological Restoration in Loess Plateau

DU Guoming1,2,*(), SUN Xiaobing1, LIU Yansui2, ZHENG Huiyu1, MA Ronghui1   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2016-03-28 Revised:2016-05-23 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-03-20
  • Contact: DU Guoming E-mail:nmgdgm@126.com

摘要:

生态退耕是调整陆地生态系统结构与功能以应对土地利用过度干扰的重要途径之一,因此科学掌握退耕格局与耕地格局演变对黄土高原生态环境治理与生态修复具有深远意义。本文以位于黄土高原的延安市为典型区,从生态退耕的整体特征、地形因素及区域差异等角度,探究生态退耕以来其耕地变化及退耕状况的空间分异特征。结果表明:生态退耕致使延安市耕地面积由2000年的11 752.80 km2减少为2013年的9149.93 km2,退耕面积为2756.85 km2,退耕指数为22.15%,且退耕耕地主要转化为林地、草地,占退耕面积的95.29%;耕地与退耕面积主要分布于6~15°、15~25°坡度及第II级(925~1115 m)、第III级(1115~1275 m),且2005-2013年的生态退耕速率均高于2000-2005年的生态退耕速率;县域退耕面积及退耕程度均呈现由北向南依次递减的分异特征,而退耕重心与耕地重心均在延安市几何中心以北的安塞县与宝塔区边界,且生态退耕的重心由东北向西南方向迁移,耕地重心则由北向南迁移。本文通过对延安市生态退耕的时空分异特征分析可为黄土高原更加科学合理地推进生态保育与生态文明建设提供参考。

关键词: 生态退耕, 时空分异, 黄土高原, 延安市

Abstract:

Ecological restoration is an important way to adjust the structure and function of ecosystem in order to cope with the excessive interference of land use. Scientific mastery of restoration pattern and farmland pattern evolution has a profound significance on the management of regional ecological environment and the conservation of vegetation in Loess Plateau. This study, taking Yan'an City in Loess Plateau as a typical area, explores the spatial differentiation characteristics of farmland variation and restoration status from the overall characteristics of ecological restoration, topographic factors and regional differences since ecological restoration. The results show that the arable land of Yan'an City decreased from 11752.80 km2 to 9149.93km2 due to the ecology restoration during 2000-2013. The returned farmland is 2756.85 km2, and the returned farmland index is 22.15%. The cultivated land was mostly converted to forest and grassland accounting for 95.29% of the total amount. Farmland and the returned farmland area was mainly distributed in slope (6~25°) and the altitude level of II(925~1115 m), III(1115~1275 m), IV(1275~1442 m), which accounted for more than 70% of the area. The degree of farmland returning increased gradually with the increase of slope, with the land reclamation rate decreased gradually with the increase of slope and elevation. The highest degree of ecological restoration is the altitude level of IV, and the least is altitude level of III. The ecological restoration rate of 2005-2013 was higher than that of 2000-2005. The area and extent of restoration in county decreased from north to south. The center of farmland returning and cultivated land is located in the boundary of Ansai county and Baota District which are in the north of Yan’an City. The center of ecological restoration was changing from northeast to southwest while the center of cultivated land was changing from north to south. This study may provide more scientific and reasonable reference for ecological conservation and construction of ecological civilization in Loess Plateau by the analysis of spatial-temporal differentiation characteristics of ecological restoration in Yan'an city.

Key words: ecological restoration, spatial-temporal differentiation, the Loess Plateau, Yan'an city